Accident
Last updated: 22 October 2014
Statuts:
Date:dimanche 1 janvier 1978
Heure:20:41
Type/Sous-type:Silhouette image of generic B742 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Boeing 747-237B
Compagnie:Air-India
Immatriculation: VT-EBD
Numéro de série: 19959/124
Année de Fabrication: 1971-03-08 (6 years 10 months)
Moteurs: 4 Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7J
Equipage:victimes: 23 / à bord: 23
Passagers:victimes: 190 / à bord: 190
Total:victimes: 213 / à bord: 213
Dégats de l'appareil: Détruit
Conséquences: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Lieu de l'accident:Arabian Sea, off Bandra (   Inde) show on map
Élévation des lieux de l'accident: -10 m (-33 feet) amsl
Phase de vol: En vol (ENR)
Nature:Transport de Passagers Intern.
Aéroport de départ:Bombay-Santacruz Airport (BOM/VABB), Inde
Aéroport de destination:Dubai Airport (DXB/OMDB), Emirats Arabes Unis
Numéro de vol: 855
Détails:
New year's day 1978. It's 20:40 when Air-India flight 855 departs Mumbai Airport's runway 27 for a flight to Dubai. The Boeing 747-200, named "Emperor Ashoka", was cleared to climb to 8000 feet and report leaving 2400 feet. Approx. one minute after takeoff the plane enters a gentle right turn heading for the Arabian Sea. The Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) however remained in a right-bank indication, while the wings were already level. The captain then said: "What's happened here, my instrument...". The co-pilot didn't note the captain's concern and replied: "Mine has also toppled, look's fine." The flight engineer however noticed the difference between the captain's ADI and the third spare ADI. Because it was dark outside and the aircraft was over the Arabian Sea, there was no visual contact with the horizon. The captain continued to roll to the left because, looking at his ADI, he still thinks the plane is in a right bank. As the airplane rolled through 40 degrees left, the flight engineer indicated to the captain: "Don't go by that one, don't go by that one...". The plane however continued to roll to the left, to 108 degrees left bank. The 747 started to descend from approx. 2000 feet altitude until it crashed into shallow (10m deep) water, 3km offshore in an approx. 35-40deg nose down pitch.

PROBABLE CAUSE: "The probable cause of this accident was due to the irrational control inputs by the captain following complete unawareness of the attitude as his ADI had malfunctioned. The crew failed to gain control based on the other flight instruments."

Sources:
» Aviation Disasters / D. Gero
» ICAO FILE NO. 78/1-0
» Jet-Airliner-Unfalle seit 1952 / J-A Richer, Chr. Wolf


Photos

photo of Boeing 747-237B VT-EBD
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Plan
Ce plan montre l'aéroport de départ ainsi que la supposé destination du vol. La ligne fixe reliant les deux aéroports n'est pas le plan de vol exact.
La distance entre Bombay-Santacruz Airport et Dubai Airport est de 1915 km (1197 miles).

Les informations ci-dessus ne représentent pas l'opinion de la 'Flight Safety Foundation' ou de 'Aviation Safety Network' sur les causes de l'accident. Ces informations prélimimaires sont basées sur les faits tels qui sont connus à ce jour.
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