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Accident
Last updated: 17 October 2017
Status:
Datum:zondag 1 januari 1978
Tijd:20:15
Type:Silhouette image of generic B742 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Boeing 747-237B
Luchtvaartmaatschappij:Air-India
Registratie: VT-EBD
Constructienummer: 19959/124
Bouwjaar: 1971-03-08 (6 years 10 months)
Motoren: 4 Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7J
Bemanning:slachtoffers: 23 / inzittenden: 23
Passagiers:slachtoffers: 190 / inzittenden: 190
Totaal:slachtoffers: 213 / inzittenden: 213
Schade: Vernield
Gevolgen: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Plaats:3 km (1.9 mijl) W van Bombay-Santacruz Airport (BOM) (   India)
Fase: Kruisvlucht (ENR)
Soort vlucht:Internationale lijnvlucht
Vliegveld van vertrek:Bombay-Santacruz Airport (BOM/VABB), India
Vliegveld van aankomst:Dubai Airport (DXB/OMDB), Verenigde Arabische Emiraten
Vluchtnummer:AI855
Beschrijving:
New year's day 1978. It's 20:12 when Air-India flight 855 departs Bombay Airport's runway 27 for a flight to Dubai. The Boeing 747-200, named "Emperor Ashoka", was cleared to climb to 8000 feet and report leaving 2400 feet. Approx. one minute after takeoff the plane enters a gentle right turn heading for the Arabian Sea. The Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) however remained in a right-bank indication, while the wings were already level. The captain then said: "What's happened here, my instrument...". The co-pilot didn't note the captain's concern and replied: "Mine has also toppled, look's fine." The flight engineer however noticed the difference between the captain's ADI and the third spare ADI. Because it was dark outside and the aircraft was over the Arabian Sea, there was no visual contact with the horizon. The captain continued to roll to the left because, looking at his ADI, he still thinks the plane is in a right bank. As the airplane rolled through 40 degrees left, the flight engineer indicated to the captain: "Don't go by that one, don't go by that one...". The plane however continued to roll to the left, to 108 degrees left bank. The 747 started to descend from approx. 2000 feet altitude until it crashed into shallow (10 m deep) water, 3 km offshore in an approx. 35-40deg nose down pitch.

Probable Cause:

PROBABLE CAUSE: The probable cause of this accident was due to the irrational control wheel inputs given by the captain following complete unawareness of the attitude of the aircraft on his part after Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) had malfunctioned. The crew failed to gain control based on the other flight instruments. He had failed to determine the attitude of the aircraft with the associated flight instruments including Standby Horizon Indicator. The co-pilot had failed to monitor the flight instruments and did not render any assistance to the captain in ascertaining the attitude of the aircraft.

Bronnen:
» Aviation Disasters / D. Gero
» ICAO FILE NO. 78/1-0
» Jet-Airliner Unfälle seit 1952 / J. Richter, Chr. Wolf


Foto's

photo of Boeing 747-237B VT-EBD
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Kaart
Deze kaart geeft het vliegveld van vetrek weer en de geplande bestemming van de vlucht. De lijn tussen de vliegvelden geeft niet de exacte vliegroute weer.
De afstand tussen Bombay-Santacruz Airport en Dubai Airport bedraagt 1915 km (1197 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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