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Accident description
Last updated: 14 December 2017
Status:Final
Date:Monday 30 April 1990
Time:21:38
Type:Silhouette image of generic BE99 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Beechcraft C99 Commuter
Operator:Frontier Air
Registration: C-GFAW
C/n / msn: U-197
First flight: 1982
Total airframe hrs:14766
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-36
Crew:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Total:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 4
Airplane damage: Damaged beyond repair
Location:11 km (6.9 mls) ENE of Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO) (   Canada)
Phase: Approach (APR)
Nature:Domestic Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Timmins Airport, ON (YTS/CYTS), Canada
Destination airport:Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO/CYMO), Canada
Flightnumber:1602
Narrative:
Frontier Air Flight 1602 took off from Timmins at 20:43 on a scheduled domestic flight to Moosonee. The flight proceeded to Moosonee at 7,000 feet and was cleared for an approach at 21:21. The crew elected to fly the VOR runway 24 approach. At 21:29, the crew reported on the 061-degree radial of the VOR at five nm outbound. Shortly after intercepting the 061-degree radial inbound, the crew initiated a descent to the 440-foot MDA. While in the descent, the aircraft broke through the lowest cloud layer at 900 feet asl, approximately 9.2 nm from the VOR At this point, both pilots had the runway lights in sight, and the captain decided to change to a visual approach and proceed inbound at 700 feet asl. Shortly after advising the co-pilot of his intentions, the captain initiated the before-landing cockpit check and lowered the landing gear. Immediately thereafter, the aircraft struck trees and crashed.

Probable Cause:

CAUSES: "It was determined that the captain inadvertently flew the aircraft into trees, during a condition of visual illusion, as a result of inadequate crew coordination in that neither pilot effectively monitored the altimeter. Contributing to the occurrence were the absence of approach lighting, the lack of company crew pairing policy, the captain’s unfamiliarity with black-hole illusion and the seating position of the captain."

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 3 years
Accident number: A90H0002

Classification:
Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) - Ground

Sources:
» Air Safety Week 31.5.1993 (p. 1,2)
» Flight Safety Foundation Accident Prevention Vol. 50, no. 11 (Nov. 1993)


Follow-up / safety actions
Recommendation were issued to Transport Canada that it should
- Provide guidance for air carriers to assist in the effective pairing of flight crews;
- Take the necessary steps to ensure that pilots receive appropriate guidance for positioning their eyes at or close to the design eye reference point which ensures certain visibility ranges and visibility lines;
- Validate its current procedures for checking that air carriers provide the required multi-engine night training.

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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Timmins Airport, ON to Moosonee Airport, ON as the crow flies is 305 km (191 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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