Narrative:Frontier Air Flight 1602 took off from Timmins at 20:43 on a scheduled domestic flight to Moosonee. The flight proceeded to Moosonee at 7,000 feet and was cleared for an approach at 21:21. The crew elected to fly the VOR runway 24 approach. At 21:29, the crew reported on the 061-degree radial of the VOR at five nm outbound. Shortly after intercepting the 061-degree radial inbound, the crew initiated a descent to the 440-foot MDA. While in the descent, the aircraft broke through the lowest cloud layer at 900 feet asl, approximately 9.2 nm from the VOR At this point, both pilots had the runway lights in sight, and the captain decided to change to a visual approach and proceed inbound at 700 feet asl. Shortly after advising the co-pilot of his intentions, the captain initiated the before-landing cockpit check and lowered the landing gear. Immediately thereafter, the aircraft struck trees and crashed.
|Date:||30 APR 1990|
|C/n / msn:|| U-197|
|First flight:|| 1982|
|Total airframe hrs:||14766|
|Engines:|| 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-36|
|Crew:||Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 2|
|Passengers:||Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2|
|Total:||Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 4 |
|Airplane damage:|| Written off|
|Airplane fate:|| Written off (damaged beyond repair)|
|Location:||11 km (6.9 mls) ENE of Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO) (Canada)
|Phase:|| Approach (APR)|
|Nature:||Domestic Scheduled Passenger|
|Departure airport:||Timmins Airport, ON (YTS/CYTS), Canada|
|Destination airport:||Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO/CYMO), Canada|
CAUSES: "It was determined that the captain inadvertently flew the aircraft into trees, during a condition of visual illusion, as a result of inadequate crew coordination in that neither pilot effectively monitored the altimeter. Contributing to the occurrence were the absence of approach lighting, the lack of company crew pairing policy, the captain’s unfamiliarity with black-hole illusion and the seating position of the captain."
» Air Safety Week 31.5.1993 (p. 1,2)
» Flight Safety Foundation Accident Prevention Vol. 50, no. 11 (Nov. 1993)
Follow-up / safety actions
Recommendation were issued to Transport Canada that it should
- Provide guidance for air carriers to assist in the effective pairing of flight crews;
- Take the necessary steps to ensure that pilots receive appropriate guidance for positioning their eyes at or close to the design eye reference point which ensures certain visibility ranges and visibility lines;
- Validate its current procedures for checking that air carriers provide the required multi-engine night training.
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not
display the exact flight path.
Distance from Timmins Airport, ON to Moosonee Airport, ON as the crow flies is 305 km (191 miles).