Accident
Last updated: 1 September 2014
Statuts:Enquête Officielle
Date:lundi 30 avril 1990
Heure:21:38
Type/Sous-type:Silhouette image of generic BE99 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Beechcraft C99
Compagnie:Frontier Air
Immatriculation: C-GFAW
Numéro de série: U-197
Année de Fabrication: 1982
Heures de vol:14766
Moteurs: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-36
Equipage:victimes: 1 / à bord: 2
Passagers:victimes: 0 / à bord: 2
Total:victimes: 1 / à bord: 4
Dégats de l'appareil: Perte Totale
Conséquences: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Lieu de l'accident:11 km (6.9 milles) ENE of Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO) (   Canada) show on map
Phase de vol: En approche (APR)
Nature:Transport de Passagers Nat.
Aéroport de départ:Timmins Airport, ON (YTS/CYTS), Canada
Aéroport de destination:Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO/CYMO), Canada
Numéro de vol:1602
Détails:
Frontier Air Flight 1602 took off from Timmins at 20:43 on a scheduled domestic flight to Moosonee. The flight proceeded to Moosonee at 7,000 feet and was cleared for an approach at 21:21. The crew elected to fly the VOR runway 24 approach. At 21:29, the crew reported on the 061-degree radial of the VOR at five nm outbound. Shortly after intercepting the 061-degree radial inbound, the crew initiated a descent to the 440-foot MDA. While in the descent, the aircraft broke through the lowest cloud layer at 900 feet asl, approximately 9.2 nm from the VOR At this point, both pilots had the runway lights in sight, and the captain decided to change to a visual approach and proceed inbound at 700 feet asl. Shortly after advising the co-pilot of his intentions, the captain initiated the before-landing cockpit check and lowered the landing gear. Immediately thereafter, the aircraft struck trees and crashed.

CAUSES: "It was determined that the captain inadvertently flew the aircraft into trees, during a condition of visual illusion, as a result of inadequate crew coordination in that neither pilot effectively monitored the altimeter. Contributing to the occurrence were the absence of approach lighting, the lack of company crew pairing policy, the captain’s unfamiliarity with black-hole illusion and the seating position of the captain."

Sources:
» Air Safety Week 31.5.1993 (p. 1,2)
» Flight Safety Foundation Accident Prevention Vol. 50, no. 11 (Nov. 1993)


Opérations de secours
Recommendation were issued to Transport Canada that it should
- Provide guidance for air carriers to assist in the effective pairing of flight crews;
- Take the necessary steps to ensure that pilots receive appropriate guidance for positioning their eyes at or close to the design eye reference point which ensures certain visibility ranges and visibility lines;
- Validate its current procedures for checking that air carriers provide the required multi-engine night training.

Photos

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Plan
Ce plan montre l'aéroport de départ ainsi que la supposé destination du vol. La ligne fixe reliant les deux aéroports n'est pas le plan de vol exact.
La distance entre Timmins Airport, ON et Moosonee Airport, ON est de 305 km (191 miles).

Les informations ci-dessus ne représentent pas l'opinion de la 'Flight Safety Foundation' ou de 'Aviation Safety Network' sur les causes de l'accident. Ces informations prélimimaires sont basées sur les faits tels qui sont connus à ce jour.
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