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Accident description
Last updated: 12 December 2017
Date:Friday 5 March 1993
Type:Silhouette image of generic F100 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Fokker 100
Operator:Palair Macedonian Airlines
Registration: PH-KXL
C/n / msn: 11393
First flight: 1992-04-23 (11 months)
Total airframe hrs:188
Engines: 2 Rolls-Royce Tay 620-15
Crew:Fatalities: 4 / Occupants: 5
Passengers:Fatalities: 79 / Occupants: 92
Total:Fatalities: 83 / Occupants: 97
Airplane damage: Destroyed
Airplane fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:Skopje Airport (SKP) (   Macedonia (FYROM))
Crash site elevation: 238 m (781 feet) amsl
Phase: Initial climb (ICL)
Nature:International Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Skopje Airport (SKP/LWSK), Macedonia (FYROM)
Destination airport:Zürich-Kloten Airport (ZRH/LSZH), Switzerland
Flightnumber: 301
At 09:40 the Fokker 100 jet arrived at Skopje (SKP) after a flight from Frankfurt (FRA). At 11:06 taxi clearance was given to Flight 301 to Zürich (ZRH)
The Fokker started the takeoff roll at 11:11 using runway 34. Two seconds after lift-off the Fokker experienced heavy vibrations followed by a sudden 10° right bank, a 50° left bank and a 55° right bank. The right wingtip struck the ground, 382 m past the runway end with a 90° bank. The wing separated and the fuselage broke into three pieces.

Probable Cause:

PROBABLE CAUSE: "The Board determined that impact with the ground in a steep right bank shortly after litf off was caused by loss of roll controllability due to contamination of the wings with ice . This situation resulted from an omission to carry out spraying of the aircraft with deicing or anti-icing fluid in meteorological conditions conducive to icing, due to a lack of ice-awareness of the flight crew and the Flying Station Engineer . Contributing factors were a lack of common background and procedures in a difficult multi-sources operational environment."

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: Raad vd Luchtvaart
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 2 years and 10 months
Accident number: jan-93
Download report: Final report

Loss of control

» Air Safety Week 15.03.1993 (p. 3)
» Flight International
» NOS journaal


photo of Fokker 100 PH-KXL
photo of Fokker 100 PH-KXL
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This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Skopje Airport to Zürich-Kloten Airport as the crow flies is 1190 km (744 miles).
Accident location: Exact; deduced from official accident report.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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Fokker 100

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 Macedonia (FYROM)
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