ASN Aircraft accident Cessna 208B Grand Caravan LN-PBC Oslo-Gardermoen Airport (OSL)
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Status:Accident investigation report completed and information captured
Date:Sunday 4 December 1994
Type:Silhouette image of generic C208 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Cessna 208B Grand Caravan
Operator:Air Team
Registration: LN-PBC
MSN: 208B0310
First flight: 1992
Total airframe hrs:2193
Engines: 1 Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-114A
Crew:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 1
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 1
Aircraft damage: Damaged beyond repair
Location:1,5 km (0.9 mls) S of Oslo-Gardermoen Airport (OSL) (   Norway)
Phase: Initial climb (ICL)
Departure airport:Oslo-Gardermoen Airport (OSL/ENGM), Norway
Destination airport:Bergen-Flesland Airport (BGO/ENBR), Norway
The Cessna Caravan was chartered to transport newspapers from Oslo (GEN) to Bergen (BGO). The airplane was pulled out of the hangar and loaded with a cargo of newspapers weighing 1389 kg. At 04:40 it started to rain. The outside air temperature at the time was -2 °C. The rain went over to snow.
The pilot was cleared to taxy to runway 19 for takeoff. The airplane took off at 05:01. The Grand Caravan stalled and crashed into a wooded area.

Probable Cause:

- Flyet sto utendørs i anslagsvis 20 minutter under forhold som normalt skulle tilsi at is ville legge seg på oversiden av flyets skrog, vinger og haleflater.
- Flyet ble ikke aviset av fartoysjefen for avgang.
- Selskapet hadde ikke utarbeidet dekkende skriftlige instrukser for avising. Selskapet hadde heller ikke skriftlige instrukser for å hindre isdannelse ved bakkeopphold.
- Selskapet hadde ikke i tilstrekkelig grad utstyr tilgjengelig, eller lagt forholdene tilstrekkelig til rette slik at isbelegg kunne hindres eller fjernes for avgang fra Gardermoen.
- Flyet tok av med is på oversiden av vinger og haleflater
- Is på oversiden av vinger og haleflater reduserte flygeegenskapene i en slik grad at fartoysjefen ikke greide å holde hoyde etter avgang og derfor havarerte.

unofficial translation from Norwegian:

Causal Factor:
- The plane was outdoors for an estimated time of 20 minutes under conditions in which ice could adhere on the surface of the plane's hull, wings and tail surfaces.
- The plane was not de-iced by the pilot prior to departure.
- The company had not developed adequate written instructions for de-icing. The company had no written instructions to prevent icing during ground stay.
- The company had no sufficient equipment available, or added conditions sufficiently organized so that icin accretion be prevented or removed before departure from Gardermoen.
- The plane took off with ice on the surface of the wings and tail surfaces
- Ice on the surface of the wings and tail surfaces reduced flight characteristics in such a degree that the pilot did not manage to gain height after departure and therefore crashed.

Loss of control

» Scramble 264


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This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Oslo-Gardermoen Airport to Bergen-Flesland Airport as the crow flies is 322 km (201 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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