Narrative:Paukn Air Flight 4101, a BAe-146 jet, took off from Malaga at 06:25 UTC for a flight across the Mediterranean Sea to the Spanish enclave Melilla on the Moroccan coast. Flight 4101 climbed to the cruising altitude of FL140. The copilot contacted ATC at Sevilla and received clearance to descend to FL70. Two minutes later the flight was further cleared to 5000 feet and the crew were instructed to contact Melilla Tower. The copilot reported to the Melilla Tower controller that they were 30 nm from the airport, descending to 5000 feet.
|Date:||Friday 25 September 1998|
British Aerospace BAe-146-100
|C/n / msn:|| E.1007|
|First flight:|| 1983-06-02 (15 years 4 months)|
|Engines:|| 4 Lycoming ALF502R-3A|
|Crew:||Fatalities: 4 / Occupants: 4|
|Passengers:||Fatalities: 34 / Occupants: 34|
|Total:||Fatalities: 38 / Occupants: 38 |
|Airplane damage:|| Damaged beyond repair|
|Location:||15,3 km (9.6 mls) N of Melilla Airport (MLN) ( Morocco)
|Phase:|| Approach (APR)|
|Nature:||Domestic Scheduled Passenger|
|Departure airport:||Málaga Airport (AGP/LEMG), Spain|
|Destination airport:||Melilla Airport (MLN/GEML), Spain|
Melilla Tower then reported that runway 33 was in use and reported wind at 270 degrees at 5 knots, visibility 8 km with few clouds at 1000 feet. At 06:45 the copilot reported that they were at 22nm at an altitude of 3000 feet. By now they had descended below the MSA of 4000 feet. The descent was continued and the airplane crossed the coast line at about 1100 feet. In IMC conditions the flight descended over mountainous terrain. At 06:49:52 the GPWS alarm sounded "terrain, terrain". Dangerously close to terrain, at about 890 feet, the GPWS alarm sounded again "Whoop, whoop, Pull Up, Whoop, whoop, Pull Up". The airplane struck terrain at an elevation of 886 feet and broke up.
Probable Cause:CONCLUSION: "Compte tenu des faits établis et de l'analyse effectué, la Commission a conclu que l'accident est dû à une collision avec le relief en conditions IMC. Ce qui confirme l'hypothèse avancée par les membres de la commission d'enquête dès le début de leurs investigations; il s'agit donc d'un accident du type CFIT (collision avec le sol sans perte de contrôle) dû à la conjugaison de plusieurs facteurs:
- Non application de la procédure d'arrivée, notamment l'évolution en dessous de l'altitude minimale de sécurité;
- Travail en équipage inadapté;
- Non application des procédures compagnie en ce qui concerne les alarmes GPWS."
CONCLUSION: "Given the facts and analysis conducted, the Commission concluded that the accident was caused by a collision with terrain in IMC. This confirms the hypothesis put forward by members of the committee of investigation from the beginning of their investigations, it is a type of CFIT accident (collision with the ground without loss of control) due to a combination of several factors:
- Non-application of the arrival procedure, including descending below the minimum safe altitude;
- Inadequate crew coordination;
- Non-application of company procedures regarding GPWS alarm. "
Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) - Mountain
» ICAO Adrep Summary 6/98 (#20)
Follow-up / safety actions
Pauknair decided not to resume operations, which were suspended following the crash of one of their two BAe 146-100s near Melilla on 25 September 1998, and the departure of their second aircraft for heavy maintenance soon thereafter.
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not
display the exact flight path.
Distance from Málaga Airport to Melilla Airport as the crow flies is 207 km (129 miles).