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Accident description
Last updated: 18 October 2017
Status:Final
Date:Sunday 17 April 2011
Time:15:00
Type:Silhouette image of generic B77L model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Boeing 777-F6N
Operator:China Cargo Airlines
Registration: B-2078
C/n / msn: 37714/869
First flight: 2010-07-20 (9 months)
Engines: 2 General Electric GE90-110B1L
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Airplane damage: Substantial
Airplane fate: Repaired
Location:København-Kastrup Airport (CPH) (   Denmark)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Cargo
Departure airport:Shanghai-Pudong International Airport (PVG/ZSPD), China
Destination airport:København-Kastrup Airport (CPH/EKCH), Denmark
Narrative:
A Boeing 777-F6N cargo plane, operated by China Cargo Airlines, sustained substantial damage in a landing accident at Copenhangen, Denmark.
The flight from Shanghai, China, was uneventful and a normal final approach was established to Copenhagen Airport's runway 22L at 1000 feet AGL with the autopilot off and the auto throttle engaged. The airspeed was 152 knots and the vertical speed was 830 feet/min.
During the flare the pilot flying started to correct the rate of decent by increasing the pitch attitude. At touchdown the pitch attitude was 4.6°, the computed airspeed was 143 knots, the vertical speed was 160 feet/min.
The aircraft touched down and bounced three times. After the first bounce, the ground spoilers automatically retracted and the auto braking system disarmed. A second bounce occurred followed by a third bounce. After the third bounce, the speed brakes handle was pulled either by the pilot flying or by thrust reverser command, which deployed the ground spoilers and the thrust reversers.
The reversers were deployed in 11 seconds. During the deceleration, the pitch angle gradually increased to 10.5° and the aircraft suffered a tailstrike. At the same time the pilot flying felt an increasing pitch up attitude and decided to initiate a go-around.
An initiation of a GA after thrust reverser activation is very risky and not an option according to the Boeing 777 Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) and the Boeing 777 Flight Crew Training Manual (FCTM).
After the ground spoilers were retracted and the reversers were stowed, the pitch angle was decreased to 7.0°. At that time, the indicated airspeed was 117 knots. Engine power was applied and as the airspeed increased. The increase of the forward engine thrust caused a further nose up pitch moment, resulting in an increasing pitch angle of 11.9°.
During lift off the indicated airspeed (IAS) was 140 knots, which was 8 knots below the V2 calculated speed. The lower speed gave less lift and kept the main landing gear compressed. The result was less aft tail belly clearance, leading the second tail strike. During initial climb, the flight crew noticed a beeper aural warning and the tailstrike caution on the upper Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display. The flight crew performed a tail strike Malfunction Check List and a Go Around Check List. The pilot not flying informed ATC about the go around and the tailstrike indication and that the pilots didn't have control problems with the aircraft. A new approach was requested to runway 22L.The aircraft landed without further problems.

Probable Cause:

CONCLUSIONS:
After the third bounce and at touch down, the PF didn’t prevent the pitch angle to increase. The lack of forward elevator control input caused the first tail strike.
During the GA, the aircraft was rotated to a pitch angle of 10.2° which caused the second tail strike.
The tail strike was prolonged as the pitch angle increased to 11.9° with a V2 speed minus 8 knots, which prolonged the time with a compressed main landing gear and less aft tail clearance.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: HCLJ Denmark
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 2 years and 4 months
Accident number: HCLJ510-000835
Download report: Final report

Classification:

Tailstrike

Sources:
» SKYbrary 


Photos

photo of Boeing 777-F6N B-2078
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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Shanghai-Pudong International Airport to København-Kastrup Airport as the crow flies is 8224 km (5140 miles).

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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