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Last updated: 17 August 2018
Statuts:Enquête Officielle
Date:vendredi 17 juin 2011
Type/Sous-type:Silhouette image of generic FA10 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Dassault Falcon 10
Immatriculation: C-GRIS
Numéro de série: 02
Année de Fabrication: 1973
Heures de vol:12697
Moteurs: 2 Garrett TFE731-2-2C
Equipage:victimes: 0 / à bord: 2
Passagers:victimes: 0 / à bord: 0
Total:victimes: 0 / à bord: 2
Dégats de l'appareil: Substantiels
Conséquences: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Lieu de l'accident:Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ) (   Canada)
Phase de vol: A l'atterrissage (LDG)
Aéroport de départ:Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ/CYYZ), Canada
Aéroport de destination:Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ/CYKZ), Canada
A Dassault Falcon 10 corporate jet sustained substantial damage in a runway excursion accident at Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ), Canada. There was no fire, and the flight crew was not injured.
At approximately 15:00, the aircraft departed runway 05 at Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ) for a ferry flight to Buttonville. At 15:03, the Toronto ACC controller cleared the aircraft for a contact approach to runway 33, to begin the descent, and to keep the approach tight, as there was traffic to follow. At that point, the aircraft was approximately 3 nm from the airport, descending through 2600 feet asl with a ground speed of 230 knots, and heading towards the threshold of runway 33 on a tight left base.
Then the crew was instructed to switch to the Buttonville tower frequency. The Buttonville tower controller provided altimeter information and cleared the aircraft to land on Runway 33. At this time, the aircraft was descending through 1400 feet asl with a ground speed of 210 knots, and was located approximately 0.3 nm from the inbound track to runway 33. The aircraft levelled out from the right turn and was heading in an eastward direction. It flew through the inbound track at a transverse angle of about 120° at approximately 1 nm final. In an attempt to regain the runway centreline, the aircraft banked left, exceeding 30° of bank. The aircraft overflew the runway centreline by approximately 0.3 nm.
At 15:04, the ground proximity warning system (GPWS) issued an aural alert to pull up. A missed approach was called by the FO in a low tone of voice and using non-standard phraseology. The captain responded, but continued the approach. Shortly afterwards, the GPWS sounded another aural alert to pull up.
The aircraft was approximately 300 feet above ground level, 0.7 nm south of runway 33 and 0.3 nm east of the inbound track, in a left bank towards the runway threshold. The captain called for full flaps and banked the aircraft steeply to the right after regaining the runway centreline while on short final.
The FO reminded the captain of the landing reference speed (Vref), 4 and twice called out Vref plus 5 knots.
At 15:04:49, the aircraft touched down hard on the main landing gear in a nose-high attitude, then immediately departed the runway surface to the right. The ground speed during the runway excursion could not be determined, but was estimated to be less than 110 knots. The captain applied the brakes and initially attempted to steer the aircraft onto the runway using the rudder. However, due to the infield's grass surface, braking and steering responses were minimal. Although the tiller was available for nose-wheel steering, it is not normally used until the speed is below 80 knots.
The aircraft traversed the grass infield to the intersection of taxiways Charlie and Bravo, continued onto taxiway Bravo, and struck a runway/taxiway identification sign before crossing the intersection of taxiways Bravo and Alpha. The aircraft struck the sign with the right side of the nose section, the inboard leading edge and the right-wing slats. The sign was struck with sufficient force that it was torn away from its base and came to rest behind the aircraft on the apron. The aircraft came to a stop on the grass just beyond the intersection of taxiways Bravo and Bravo/Alpha.

Probable Cause:

1. The crew flew an unstabilized approach with excessive airspeed.
2. The lack of adherence to company standard operating procedures and crew resource management, as well as the non-completion of checklist items by the flight crew contributed to the occurrence.
3. The captain’s commitment to landing or lack of understanding of the degree of instability of the flight path likely influenced the decision not to follow the aural GPWS alerts and the missed approach call from the first officer.
4. The non-standard wording and the tone used by the first officer were insufficient to deter the captain from continuing the approach.
5. At touchdown, directional control was lost, and the aircraft veered off the runway with sufficient speed to prevent any attempts to regain control.

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 4 months
Accident number: A11O0098
Download report: Final report


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Side view of a Dassault Falcon 10 that overran the runway at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport

Ce plan montre l'aéroport de départ ainsi que la supposée destination du vol. La ligne fixe reliant les deux aéroports n'est pas le plan de vol exact.
La distance entre Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON et Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON est de 29 km (18 miles).

Les informations ci-dessus ne représentent pas l'opinion de la 'Flight Safety Foundation' ou de 'Aviation Safety Network' sur les causes de l'accident. Ces informations prélimimaires sont basées sur les faits tel qu'ils sont connus à ce jour.
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