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Accident description
Last updated: 30 May 2016
Date:Thursday 28 July 2011
Type:Silhouette image of generic B744 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Boeing 747-48EF
Operator:Asiana Airlines
Registration: HL7604
C/n / msn: 29907/1370
First flight: 2006-02-15 (5 years 5 months)
Total airframe hrs:28752
Engines: 4 General Electric CF6-80C2B1F
Crew:Fatalities: 2 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 2 / Occupants: 2
Airplane damage: Destroyed
Airplane fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:130 km (81.3 mls) W off Jeju, South Korea [East China Sea] (   Pacific Ocean)
Phase: En route (ENR)
Departure airport:Seoul-Incheon International Airport (ICN/RKSI), South Korea
Destination airport:Shanghai-Pudong International Airport (PVG/ZSPD), China
A Boeing 747-400F cargo plane, HL7604, was destroyed when it crashed into the sea off Jeju, South Korea. Both pilots were killed in the accident.
Asiana Airlines flight 991 departed Seoul-Incheon International Airport (ICN) at 03:05 on a cargo flight to Shanghai-Pudong International Airport (PVG), China.
At 03:51, at about FL230, the copilot contacted Shanghai Area Control Center (ACC). Three minutes later the copilot radioed an emergency, requesting an emergency descent due to an on board fire. In subsequent communication the copilot stated that they wanted to divert back to Jeju with a descent to FL100. He also reported a rear cargo fire.
At 04:05 the crew of Korean Air flight KE886 relayed radar vectors and descent instructions from Incheon ACC. The captain then reported rudder control problems to KE886. Control problems appeared to worsen as the captain radioed: "Rudder control... flight control, all are not working." at 04:09. The first officer added: "We have heavy vibration on the airplane, may need to make an emergency landing, emergency ditching.". Last contact was at 04:10 when the first officer radioed: "Altitude control is not available due to heavy vibration, going to ditch... ah." According to radar data the altitude at that time was about 10.000 feet.
The airplane then entered a high speed descent and struck the surface of the sea and broke up. The wreckage sank to a depth of about 85 metres.

The plane carried 58 tonnes of cargo, including 0.4 tonnes of potentially risky materials such as lithium batteries, paint, amino acid solution and synthetic resin.

The Aviation and Railway Accident Investigation Board (ARAIB) determines the cause of this accident as follows:
A fire developed on or near the pallets containing dangerous goods but no physical evidence of the cause of the fire was found. The fire rapidly escalated into a large uncontained fire, and this caused some portions of the fuselage to separate from the aircraft in midair, thereby resulting in the crash.

Contributing Factors
1. Flammable materials like photo-resist (Class 3) were loaded in position ML, and flammable materials like paint, photo-resist, corrosive liquid, and lithium-ion batteries (Class 9) were loaded on one pallet in position PR.
2. It was difficult to contain a large scale of fire only by the fire suppression system of a Class E cargo compartment that was not equipped with an active fire suppression system.


Loss of control

» Korean Ministry of Transport
» Flightglobal

Official accident investigation report
investigating agency: Aviation and Railway Accident Investigation Board (ARAIB) - South Korea
report status: Final
report number: ARAIB/AAR1105
report released:5 August 2015
duration of investigation: 4 years
download report: Crash Into The Sea After An In-Flight Fire Asiana Airlines B747-400F/HL7604 130 km West Of Jeju International Airport July 28, 2011 (ARAIB/AAR1105)

Follow-up / safety actions

ARAIB issued 20 Safety Recommendations
NTSB issued 3 Safety Recommendations

Show all AD's and Safety Recommendations


photo of Boeing 747-48EF HL7604
Altitude and speed before the crash
photo of Boeing 747-48EF HL7604
photo of Boeing 747-48EF HL7604
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This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Seoul-Incheon International Airport to Shanghai-Pudong International Airport as the crow flies is 817 km (511 miles).

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