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Accident
Last updated: 19 October 2017
Status:Schlussbericht
Datum:Samstag 2 März 2013
Zeit:20:10
Flugzeugtyp:Silhouette image of generic A310 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Airbus A310-304
Fluggesellschaft:SATA Internacional
Kennzeichen: CS-TGU
Werknummer: 571
Baujahr: 1991-02-07 (22 years )
Betriebsstunden:60612
Anzahl Zyklen der Zelle:20239
Triebwerk: 2 General Electric CF6-80C2A2
Besatzung:Todesopfer: 0 / Insassen: 8
Fluggäste:Todesopfer: 0 / Insassen: 117
Gesamt:Todesopfer: 0 / Insassen: 125
Sachschaden: schwer beschädigt
Konsequenzen: Repaired
Unfallort:Ponta Delgada-Joćo Paulo II Airport, Azores (PDL) (   Portugal)
Flugphase: Landung (LDG)
Betriebsart:Inländischer planmäßiger Passagierflug
Flug von:Lisboa-Portela de Sacavém Airport (LIS/LPPT), Portugal
Flug nach:Ponta Delgada-Joćo Paulo II Airport, Azores (PDL/LPPD), Portugal
Flugnummer:S4129
Unfallbericht:
SATA Internacional flight S4129 departed Lisbon Airport at 19:06 UTC bound for Ponta Delgada Airport, in the Azorean island of Sćo Miguel. There were 8 crew members and 117 passengers on board. The copilot was Pilot Flying.
After an uneventful flight of approximately two hours, the aircraft was established on ILS, for landing on runway 30 at Ponta Delgada Airport. Final approach was performed with both autopilots engaged in LAND mode and Auto Throttle engaged with SPEED mode selected. The aircraft was stabilized on glide slope and localizer, with an approach airspeed Vapp of 132 kts, for a Vref of 126 kts. Descending through 286ft (Radio Altimeter) the autopilots were disengaged. The aircraft was thereafter flown manually, assisted by the use of flight directors and autothrottle.
Below 20 feet at a slightly high descent rate there was a short flare followed by a light bounce with spoilers extended. The ensuing aircraft's natural aerodynamic tendency was an increase in the pitch attitude in conjunction with a pulling force exerted on the control column with a high pitch rate (3°/s) and increasing high pitch up attitude (up to 14.82°). This manoeuvre, most likely to avoid a hard nose wheel ground contact, made the tail strike the ground. By the time the main landing gear shock absorbers were fully compressed the aircraft’s pitch angle had exceeded the ground/ tail clearance of 13.2°.
The aircraft was taxied to the apron and a maintenance preliminary check was performed. The aircraft had sustained serious damage to the underside of the rear fuselage, where the lower skin panels were abraded by contact with the runway surface. In some areas, the skin was buckled through its full thickness and some vertical struts bent the attachment area in the airframe structure.

Probable Cause:

CAUSES OF THE ACCIDENT
PRIMARY CAUSE
Inadequate recovery handling of a bounced firm landing (deviation from recommended flying pilot technique).

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
The following were considered as contributing factors:
a) High sink rate prior to and during flare;
b) Aircraft firm landing followed by a light bounce;
c) Crew momentary unawareness of aircraft position (in the air) and intentional column pulling action, trying to smooth nose wheel contact with ground;
d) The presence of a tailwind component during the flare phase above recommended 10kts limits;
e) Aircraft's center of gravity at a slightly backward position but this factor is of marginal contribution only;
f) The decision to land on damp runway 30, with tailwind component marginal to the maximum permitted (10kts), instead of a circling to land to the actual runway (12) in use or the decision to discontinue the approach via a go-around procedure;
g) A bounce recovery at night (with less visual references) characterized by taking place very close to the ground (less than 20 feet) hence allowing for a very short reaction time from the PF and little control effectiveness of the aircraft (throttle retarded and normal configuration to land);
h) The existing take-off / landing certification standards, which were based on the attainment of the landing reference speeds, and flight crew training that was based on the monitoring of and response to those speeds, hindering crew to detect degraded landing speed and sink rate.

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: GPIAA Portugal
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 2 years
Accident number: 02/ACCID/2013
Download report: Final report

METAR Weather report:
20:30 UTC / 19:30 local time:
LPPD 022030Z 15014KT 9999 -SHRA SCT016 14/12 Q0997

21:00 UTC / 20:00 local time:
LPPD 022100Z 17013KT 9999 -SHRA SCT015 SCT030 13/12 Q0997


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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Lisboa-Portela de Sacavém Airport to Ponta Delgada-Joćo Paulo II Airport, Azores as the crow flies is 1439 km (899 miles).

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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