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Accident description
Last updated: 20 October 2017
Status:Final
Date:Thursday 12 March 2015
Time:11:48 UTC
Type:Silhouette image of generic PRM1 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Raytheon 390 Premier I
Operator:Pool Aviation
Registration: G-OOMC
C/n / msn: RB-146
First flight: 2005
Engines: 2 Williams International FJ44-2A
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Airplane damage: Substantial
Airplane fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:Blackpool Airport (BLK) (   United Kingdom)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Int'l Non Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Avignon-Caum Airport (AVN/LFMV), France
Destination airport:Blackpool Airport (BLK/EGNH), United Kingdom
Narrative:
The aircraft planned to fly from Avignon Airport, France to Blackpool Airport, with two flight crew and two passengers. The co-pilot performed the external checks; this included checking the fluid level in the hydraulic reservoir. The aircraft was refuelled to 3,000 lb and, after the passengers boarded, it departed for Blackpool. The commander was the pilot flying (PF).
The takeoff and cruise to Blackpool were uneventful.
The commander planned and briefed for the NDB approach to runway 10, which was to be flown with the autopilot engaged. Whilst descending through FL120, the left, followed by the right, hydraulic low pressure cautions illuminated. Upon checking the hydraulic pressure gauge, the pressure was noted to be ‘cycling up and down’, but for the majority of the time it indicated about 2,800 psi (in the green arc). During this time the hydraulic low pressure cautions went on and off irregularly, with the left caution being on more often than the right. The co-pilot then actioned the ‘HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - HYDRAULIC PUMP FAILURE’ checklist. It stated that if the hydraulic pressure was a minimum of 2,800 psi, the flight could be continued.
Just before the aircraft reached the Blackpool NDB, the commander commented "it’s dropping", but he could not recall what he was referring to. This was followed by the roll fail and speed brk [brake] fail caution messages illuminating. The co-pilot then actioned the applicable checklists. These stated that the Landing Distances Required (LDR) would increase by approximately 65% and 21%, respectively. As the roll fail LDR increase was greater than that of the speed brk fail, the crew used an LDR increase of 65% which the co-pilot equated to 5,950 ft. Runway 10 at Blackpool has an LDA of 6,131 ft, therefore they elected to continue to Blackpool.
The roll fail checklist stated that a ‘FLAPS UP’ landing was required. The co-pilot then calculated the VREF of 132 kt, including a 20 kt increment, as stipulated by the ‘FLAPS UP, 10, OR 20 APPROACH AND LANDING’ checklist. The commander then continued with the approach.
At about 4 nm on final approach the co-pilot lowered the landing gear, in response to the commander’s request. About 8 seconds later the commander said "just lost it all"; referring to the general state of the aircraft. This was followed almost immediately by the landing gear unsafe aural warning, as the main landing gear was not indicating down and locked. Whilst descending through 1,000 ft, at just over 3 nm from the threshold, the commander asked the co-pilot to action the ‘ALTERNATE GEAR EXTENSION’ checklist.
The commander then discontinued the approach by selecting ALT HOLD, increased engine thrust and selected a 500 ft/min rate of climb on the autopilot. However, a few seconds later, before the co-pilot could action the checklist, the main gear indicated down and locked. The commander disconnected the autopilot and continued the approach. The crew did not consider reviewing the ‘HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - HYDRAULIC PUMP FAILURE’ checklist as they had not recognised the symptoms of loss of hydraulic pressure.
When ATC issued the aircraft its landing clearance the wind was from 140° at 17 kt. This equated to a headwind component of about 10 kt and a crosswind of about 12 kt. As the aircraft descended through 500 ft (the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for the approach) at 1.5 nm from the threshold, the commander instructed the co-pilot to advise ATC that they had a hydraulic problem and to request the RFFS to be put on standby. There was a slight delay in transmitting this request, due to another aircraft on frequency, but the request was acknowledged by ATC.
The aircraft touched down about 1,500 ft from the start of the paved surface at an airspeed of 132 kt and a groundspeed of 124 kt. When the commander applied the toe (power) brakes he felt no significant retardation. During the landing roll no attempt was made to apply the emergency brakes, as required in the event of a power brake failure. The co-pilot asked if he should try to operate the lift dump, but it failed to function, due to the lack of hydraulic pressure. At some point, while the aircraft was on the runway, the co-pilot transmitted a MAYDAY call to ATC. When an overrun appeared likely, the commander shut down the engines. The aircraft subsequently overran the end of the runway at a groundspeed of about 80 kt. The commander later commented that he was in a "state of panic" during the landing roll and was unsure whether or not he had applied the emergency brake.
As the aircraft left the paved surface the commander steered the aircraft slightly right to avoid a shallow downslope to the left of runway’s extended centreline. The aircraft continued across the rough, uneven ground, during which the nose gear collapsed and the wing to fuselage attachments were severely damaged. Once it had come to a stop, he shut down the remaining aircraft systems. The passengers and crew, who were uninjured, vacated the aircraft via the entry/exit door and moved upwind to a safe distance.

Probable Cause:

The investigation determined that, irrespective of the omission to apply the emergency brakes, the Landing Distance Available (LDA) at Blackpool was insufficient for the aircraft to land with a hydraulic failure. A fatigue crack in the port cap1 of the left hydraulic pump had caused a hydraulic leak which eventually resulted in the total loss of the hydraulic system.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: AAIB
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 11 months
Accident number: EW/C2015/03/01
Download report: Final report

Classification:

Runway excursion

Sources:
» NTSB

METAR Weather report:
11:50 UTC / 11:50 local time:
EGNH 121150Z 15021KT 9000 FEW024 11/08 Q1020

12:20 UTC / 12:20 local time:
EGNH 121220Z 14018KT 9000 FEW024 12/08 Q1020


Photos

photo of Raytheon 390 Premier I G-OOMC
photo of Raytheon 390 Premier I G-OOMC
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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Avignon-Caum Airport to Blackpool Airport as the crow flies is 1230 km (769 miles).

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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