ASN Aircraft accident Cessna 560XL Citation Excel G-IPAX Kemi/Tornio Airport (KEM)
ASN logo
Status:Accident investigation report completed and information captured
Date:Sunday 5 December 2021
Type:Silhouette image of generic C56X model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Cessna 560XL Citation Excel
Operator:Air Charter Scotland Ltd.
Registration: G-IPAX
MSN: 560-5228
First flight: 2002
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PW545A
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Aircraft fate: Repaired
Location:Kemi/Tornio Airport (KEM) (   Finland)
Phase: Standing (STD)
Departure airport:Kemi/Tornio Airport (KEM/EFKE), Finland
Destination airport:Edinburgh-Turnhouse Airport (EDI/EGPH), United Kingdom
A Cessna 560XL aircraft operated by Air Charter Scotland landed at Kemi-Tornio airport on Thursday December 2, 2021. The aircraft taxied to the apron and parked on stands 3 and 4 at an angle relative to the terminal building. An apron service worker of Groundpower, which was providing ground handling services, received the aircraft and placed chocks fore and aft of the nosewheel. The return flight to Edinburgh was set to depart on Sunday December 5. The aircraft remained parked for almost three days, and its engines were not operated during this period.
The pilots arrived at the aircraft on the day of departure at approximately 11:00. After removing the aircraft covers, they conducted an exterior inspection and carried out preparations for warming-up the cold-soaked aircraft. Because no external heaters were available and the aircraft did not have an APU, this could only be done by running the engines. Outside air temperature had dropped to approximately -26 °C overnight and during the morning. During pre-start checks the pilots noticed that the brake system circuit breaker had tripped and the brake system annunciator light was illuminated. After calling the company’s line maintenance controller they assumed that the indication was caused by extended parking in sub-zero temperatures.
Following start-up, engine power was increased in small increments during approximately 40 min, and after approximately 30 min the circuit breaker was reset, but the annunciator light remained on. Oil temperature in both engines increased slowly, and the pilots decided to carry out a deicing systems test. Power was increased on the right engine while power on the left engine was simultaneously reduced.
As a result, the aircraft moved forward unexpectedly. The nosewheel pushed the front chock over a thin layer of compacted snow for a short distance until the chock slid aside, off the wheel’s track. The captain applied brakes to stop the aircraft, to no effect. He simultaneously reduced power on the engines to idle and used nosewheel steering to maneuver the aircraft to the right, away from the terminal building (Figure 2). However, the left wing leading edge struck a metal lamp post at the edge of the apron at approximately 12:38. The aircraft rotated approximately 90° to the left relative to the direction of travel and came to a halt with the nosewheel in snow at the edge of the apron. The captain cut off fuel supply to the engines soon after the impact. The distance that the aircraft traveled was approximately 20 m.
The impact created a dent in the wing leading edge that extended all the way to the wing spar. The cable from a ground power unit (GPU) had been connected to the aircraft.
Bending force imparted by the cable plug on the fuselage-mounted receptacle caused deformation of the receptacle. The accident did not result in injuries.

Probable Cause:

1. Conclusion: An exterior inspection before a warm-up run shall be conducted with care regardless of the prevailing conditions. The pilots had not checked mainwheel chocking during parking.
2. Conclusion: The ground operations manual was not complied with.
3. Conclusion: The use of the emergency brake system is usually practised in takeoff and landing situations, not during maneuvering on the apron.
4. Conclusion: Cold degraded the pilots’ physical and mental performance.
5. Conclusion: A tripped circuit breaker and an annunciator light indicate an inadequately diagnosed system anomaly.
6. Conclusion: All potential risks had not been assessed properly in advance. Unclearly delineated responsibilities in company management resulted in a situation where potential risks related to operations to a new, unfamiliar aerodrome had not been assessed.

Accident investigation:

Investigating agency: SIAF
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year
Accident number: L2021-05
Download report: Final report


Damaged on the ground



Add your photo of this accident or aircraft

This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Kemi/Tornio Airport to Edinburgh-Turnhouse Airport as the crow flies is 1828 km (1143 miles).
Accident location: Exact; deduced from official accident report.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
languages: languages


The Aviation Safety Network is an exclusive service provided by:
Quick Links:

CONNECT WITH US: FSF on social media FSF Facebook FSF Twitter FSF Youtube FSF LinkedIn FSF Instagram

©2023 Flight Safety Foundation

1920 Ballenger Av, 4th Fl.
Alexandria, Virginia 22314