Runway excursion Serious incident Boeing 747-251B 5N-JRM,
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ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 161251
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Date:Friday 4 October 2013
Type:Silhouette image of generic B742 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different    
Boeing 747-251B
Owner/operator:Kabo Air
Registration: 5N-JRM
MSN: 23549/651
Year of manufacture:1986
Fatalities:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 512
Aircraft damage: Minor
Category:Serious incident
Location:Sokoto Airport (SKO/DNSO) -   Nigeria
Phase: Landing
Nature:Passenger - Non-Scheduled/charter/Air Taxi
Departure airport:Kano-Aminu Kano International Airport (KAN/DNKN)
Destination airport:Sokoto Airport (SKO/DNSO)
Investigating agency: AIB Nigeria
Confidence Rating: Accident investigation report completed and information captured
The Boeing 747-200, 5N-JRM, was operated by Kabo Air as a charter (Hajj) flight with call sign QNK617. It departed Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, Kano (DNKN) Nigeria, en-route to King Abdul-Aziz International Airport Jeddah (OEJN); Saudi Arabia via Sultan Abubakar Airport, Sokoto (DNSO); Nigeria, on an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Flight Plan.
There were 512 persons on board, inclusive of 18 crew members with seven hours' fuel endurance. The Captain was the Pilot Flying (PF) and the Co-pilot was the Pilot Monitoring (PM).
The flight was originally scheduled to route DNKN to OEJN. While in the cockpit preparing for the flight, the company advised the crew of a new routing from DNKN to OEJN via DNSO to pick additional passengers.
At 21:10, QNK617 contacted DNSO Air Traffic Control (ATC) and passed their traffic information. ATC acknowledged and cleared QNK617 as follows: "QNK617 cleared Sokoto FL180, no delay. Expect ILS Approach Runway 08. Sokoto 20:00, Surface Wind calm, visibility 10km, Nil Weather, Few cumulonimbus North West at 750 m, QNH 1012."
At 21:12, Kano Control released QNK617 to Sokoto Control. At 21:24 h, QNK617 requested descent and was cleared to FL65 and instructed to report 25 DME SOK. At 41 DME SOK, QNK617 was re-cleared to 3500 ft on QNH 1012 and further cleared for ILS approach runway 08 on reaching overhead SOK.
At 21:31, QNK617 reported field in sight and requested for straight-in Visual Approach for runway 26. ATC replied as follows: "no objection, report final runway 26." At 21:33, ATC cautioned QNK617 that the Approach Lights were of Low Intensity only and QNK617 acknowledged. At 21:36, QNK617 reported 8 miles final. ATC cleared QNK617 to land on runway 26 with reported surface wind calm.
During the landing approach, QNK617 impacted the Localizer Antenna/Approach Lighting System, touched down 100 m short of the runway 26 threshold at 21:40 and continued with the landing roll onto the runway until it came to a stop. The aircraft then taxied to the apron. Two right main wheel tyres had burst.
The Captain stated that the decision to land straight-in runway 26 was to save fuel and that a 2.5 degree glide path was used for the approach. He also stated that the intention was to land at an appropriate point on the runway to avoid runway overrun, as the aircraft weight was close to maximum landing weight. He then added that he observed the absence of Touch Down Zone Lighting on the runway. The Flight Engineer stated that the approach was normal until the Radio Altimeter call out of 10 ft, followed by a thudding sound and slight vibration.

Causal factor
Inappropriate visual approach profile at night with no vertical guidance.
Contributory factors
1. Unserviceable Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) on Runway 26.
2. Decision to land on the non-precision runway 26 at night.

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: AIB Nigeria
Report number: 
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 7 years and 2 months
Download report: Final report


Revision history:

05-Oct-2013 18:07 gerard57 Added
05-Oct-2013 18:19 harro Updated [Time, Aircraft type, Operator, Location, Departure airport, Destination airport, Source, Narrative]
05-Oct-2013 18:22 harro Updated [Narrative]
07-Dec-2020 15:28 harro Updated [Time, Nature, Source, Narrative, Accident report]

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