Accident Beechcraft C99 Commuter C-GFAW,
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Date:Monday 30 April 1990
Type:Silhouette image of generic BE99 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different    
Beechcraft C99 Commuter
Owner/operator:Frontier Air
Registration: C-GFAW
MSN: U-197
Year of manufacture:1982
Total airframe hrs:14766 hours
Engine model:Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-36
Fatalities:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 4
Aircraft damage: Destroyed, written off
Location:11 km ENE of Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO) -   Canada
Phase: Approach
Nature:Passenger - Scheduled
Departure airport:Timmins Airport, ON (YTS/CYTS)
Destination airport:Moosonee Airport, ON (YMO/CYMO)
Investigating agency: TSB
Confidence Rating: Accident investigation report completed and information captured
Frontier Air Flight 1602 took off from Timmins at 20:43 on a scheduled domestic flight to Moosonee. The flight proceeded to Moosonee at 7,000 feet and was cleared for an approach at 21:21. The crew elected to fly the VOR runway 24 approach. At 21:29, the crew reported on the 061-degree radial of the VOR at five nm outbound. Shortly after intercepting the 061-degree radial inbound, the crew initiated a descent to the 440-foot MDA. While in the descent, the aircraft broke through the lowest cloud layer at 900 feet asl, approximately 9.2 nm from the VOR At this point, both pilots had the runway lights in sight, and the captain decided to change to a visual approach and proceed inbound at 700 feet asl. Shortly after advising the co-pilot of his intentions, the captain initiated the before-landing cockpit check and lowered the landing gear. Immediately thereafter, the aircraft struck trees and crashed.

CAUSES: "It was determined that the captain inadvertently flew the aircraft into trees, during a condition of visual illusion, as a result of inadequate crew coordination in that neither pilot effectively monitored the altimeter. Contributing to the occurrence were the absence of approach lighting, the lack of company crew pairing policy, the captain’s unfamiliarity with black-hole illusion and the seating position of the captain."

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: TSB
Report number: A90H0002
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 3 years
Download report: Final report


Air Safety Week 31 May 1993 (p. 1,2)
Flight Safety Foundation Accident Prevention Vol. 50, no. 11 (Nov. 1993)


Revision history:


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