Accident Lockheed L-749-79-33 Constellation PH-TDF,
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Date:Tuesday 12 July 1949
Type:Silhouette image of generic CONI model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different    
Lockheed L-749-79-33 Constellation
Owner/operator:KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Registration: PH-TDF
MSN: 2558
Year of manufacture:1947
Total airframe hrs:3381 hours
Engine model:Wright R-3350 (749C18BD1) Cyclone
Fatalities:Fatalities: 45 / Occupants: 45
Aircraft damage: Destroyed, written off
Location:5 km ENE of Bombay-Santacruz Airport (BOM) -   India
Phase: Approach
Nature:Passenger - Non-Scheduled/charter/Air Taxi
Departure airport:Delhi-Palam Airport (DEL/VIDP)
Destination airport:Bombay-Santacruz Airport (BOM/VABB)
Confidence Rating: Accident investigation report completed and information captured
The Constellation operated on a flight from Batavia (now Jakarta) in Indonesia to Amsterdam, the Netherlands, when it took off from Delhi at 00:39 GMT after an intermediate stop. At 03:22 GMT the plane arrived over Mumbai (Bombay) at 7000 feet for another intermediate stop. The flight was cleared to descend to 500-600 feet and vectored for a runway 23 approach. At 03:50 GMT the aircraft struck a 674 feet high mist-shrouded hill and crashed.

PROBABLE CAUSE: "The Board was of the opinion that two successive errors of judgment were committed by the pilot. These were as follows: (1) He initiated a landing procedure at an aerodrome with which he was not acquainted, in weather conditions which were lower than the minimum prescribed for landings on that aerodrome; (2) On arrival over the aerodrome, he flew at too low an altitude over a terrain which he must have known to include a hill which constituted a hazard for his aircraft, which hill he was not able to see, on account of the poor visibility and low cloud.
The Board further considered that the following factors contributed towards the accident to a considerable extent: a) air traffic control did not advise the pilot to delay his landing until the weather conditions had improved, or otherwise to divert to another aerodrome; b) air traffic control designated a runway for the landing which necessitated the aircraft venturing low over dangerous terrain as indicated in 2) above."


ICAO Circular 18-AN/15 (35-42)
Uitspraak ongeval PH-TDF / Raad voor de Luchtvaart
Constellation "Franeker" stort neer bij Bombay


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