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Last updated: 17 February 2020
Status:
Date:Friday 8 March 1996
Time:19:42
Type:Silhouette image of generic B763 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Boeing 767-375ER
Operator:Canadian Airlines International
Registration: C-FOCA
C/n / msn: 24575/311
First flight: 1990-05-31 (5 years 9 months)
Total airframe hrs:25213
Engines: 2 General Electric CF6-80C2B6F
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 9
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 91
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 100
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Aircraft fate: Repaired
Location:Halifax International Airport, NS (YHZ) (   Canada)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Int'l Non Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ/CYYZ), Canada
Destination airport:Halifax International Airport, NS (YHZ/CYHZ), Canada
Flightnumber:48
Narrative:
The crew had flown the backcourse approach to runway 06 at Halifax International Airport, establishing visual reference at limits. There was a 300 ft overcast, 1-1/2 mile visibility in light freezing drizzle and fog, winds from 110 degrees at 6 kt. During the touchdown a tail strike occurred causing considerable damage to the belly and tail skid. The manufacturer reports that this is the first confirmed case of significant damage to this type as the result of a tail strike. The CofG was near the forward limit.

Probable Cause:

Causes:
The tail strike occurred because the crew responded to a visual illusion with an unwarranted power reduction between the minimum descent altitude and touchdown. The upslope illusion led both crew members to believe the aircraft was higher than it actually was, and the crew did not respond to visual cues from the precision approach path indicator, which showed the aircraft to be too low. Contributing to the accident were the captain's preoccupation with stopping on the slippery runway, and some loss of aircraft performance below 400 feet agl. Also contributing were the lateral navigation/vertical navigation procedures in use, and a higher than normal aircraft body angle, which was induced by a lower than normal approach speed and the aircraft's
forward centre of gravity.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 9 months
Accident number: A96A0035
Download report: Final report

Classification:
Tailstrike
Runway mishap

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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON to Halifax International Airport, NS as the crow flies is 1279 km (800 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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