ASN Aircraft accident Learjet 45 I-ERJC Milano-Linate Airport (LIN)
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Date:Sunday 1 June 2003
Type:Silhouette image of generic LJ45 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Learjet 45
Operator:Eurojet Italia
Registration: I-ERJC
MSN: 45-093
First flight: 2000
Engines: 2 Garrett TFE731-20AR-1B
Crew:Fatalities: 2 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 2 / Occupants: 2
Aircraft damage: Destroyed
Aircraft fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:0,3 km (0.2 mls) E of Milano-Linate Airport (LIN) (   Italy)
Phase: Initial climb (ICL)
Departure airport:Milano-Linate Airport (LIN/LIML), Italy
Destination airport:Genoa-Cristoforo Colombo Airport (GOA/LIMJ), Italy
The Learjet 45 impacted terrain shortly after takeoff from runway 36R at Milano-Linate Airport, Italy. Both pilots were kiled.
The aircraft operated on a repositioning flight to Genoa to pick up a passenger for Amsterdam Airport, the Netherlands. The first officer, on his first line training flight after obtaining his type rating, was to perform the duties of Pilot Flying on the first leg.
The aircraft was cleared for takeoff from runway 36R. During rotation the aircraft impacted the flock of pigeons crossing the runway from west to east. The impact with the birds affected the left engine and probably also the right engine.
After reaching a pitch of +18, the stall warning activated. The captain then took over control from the first officer.
Without having raised the undercarriage, ten seconds after takeoff, at 209 feet and an indicated speed of 129 knots, the commander began a right turn for downwind with a bank progressively increasing to 39. Subsequently the master warning (triple chime) activated and the N1 indications of the left engine dropped to 0%. During the turn and on the downwind leg, the stall warning sounded and the stick shaker was activated.
At 24 seconds after the takeoff, the captain brought back the thrust lever of the right engine to idle, without any sharing of the initiative with the FO. From then on the captain only manipulated the thrust lever of the left engine, which had already failed.
When the captain began the base turn he asked the FO to select the flaps at 20 degrees. This was followed by a "L engine fire" warning.
At 1 minute and 25 seconds after take-off, the pilot lost control of the aircraft, which crashed at the site of a warehouse near a road on the outskirts of Milan, some 300 metres from the runway. In the vicinity a crowd was watching Italy's national cycling tour Giro d'Italia.

Probable Cause:

The event, triggered by a multiple impact with birds during take-off, was caused by the loss of control in flight of the aircraft, due to an aerodynamic stall during the return to the departure airport, which could not be recovered due to the reduced altitude available.
The following factors contributed to the event
- the non-implementation of the procedure provided for in the Flight Manual for engine failure after V1, with particular reference to configuration control (undercarriage and flaps), thrust lever management, definition and achievement of safety altitude, maintenance of expected speeds;
- the lack of CRM, already detectable in the ground procedures phase, but significantly worsened as a result of the emergency;
- the lack of experience of FO, on its first flight of line training on the type of aircraft;
- the inadequacy of the measures and of the bird control activity in the manoeuvring area.

Accident investigation:

Investigating agency: ANSV
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 17 years and 2 months
Accident number: final report
Download report: Final report

Bird strike
Loss of control

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photo of Learjet-45-I-ERJC
accident date: 01-06-2003
type: Learjet 45
registration: I-ERJC

This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Milano-Linate Airport to Genoa-Cristoforo Colombo Airport as the crow flies is 119 km (74 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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