ASN Aircraft accident Dassault Falcon 10 C-GRIS Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ)
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Status:Accident investigation report completed and information captured
Date:Friday 17 June 2011
Type:Silhouette image of generic FA10 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Dassault Falcon 10
Registration: C-GRIS
MSN: 02
First flight: 1973
Total airframe hrs:12697
Engines: 2 Garrett TFE731-2-2C
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Aircraft fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ) (   Canada)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Departure airport:Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ/CYYZ), Canada
Destination airport:Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ/CYKZ), Canada
A Dassault Falcon 10 corporate jet sustained substantial damage in a runway excursion accident at Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON (YKZ), Canada. There was no fire, and the flight crew was not injured.
At approximately 15:00, the aircraft departed runway 05 at Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON (YYZ) for a ferry flight to Buttonville. At 15:03, the Toronto ACC controller cleared the aircraft for a contact approach to runway 33, to begin the descent, and to keep the approach tight, as there was traffic to follow. At that point, the aircraft was approximately 3 nm from the airport, descending through 2600 feet asl with a ground speed of 230 knots, and heading towards the threshold of runway 33 on a tight left base.
Then the crew was instructed to switch to the Buttonville tower frequency. The Buttonville tower controller provided altimeter information and cleared the aircraft to land on Runway 33. At this time, the aircraft was descending through 1400 feet asl with a ground speed of 210 knots, and was located approximately 0.3 nm from the inbound track to runway 33. The aircraft levelled out from the right turn and was heading in an eastward direction. It flew through the inbound track at a transverse angle of about 120° at approximately 1 nm final. In an attempt to regain the runway centreline, the aircraft banked left, exceeding 30° of bank. The aircraft overflew the runway centreline by approximately 0.3 nm.
At 15:04, the ground proximity warning system (GPWS) issued an aural alert to pull up. A missed approach was called by the FO in a low tone of voice and using non-standard phraseology. The captain responded, but continued the approach. Shortly afterwards, the GPWS sounded another aural alert to pull up.
The aircraft was approximately 300 feet above ground level, 0.7 nm south of runway 33 and 0.3 nm east of the inbound track, in a left bank towards the runway threshold. The captain called for full flaps and banked the aircraft steeply to the right after regaining the runway centreline while on short final.
The FO reminded the captain of the landing reference speed (Vref), 4 and twice called out Vref plus 5 knots.
At 15:04:49, the aircraft touched down hard on the main landing gear in a nose-high attitude, then immediately departed the runway surface to the right. The ground speed during the runway excursion could not be determined, but was estimated to be less than 110 knots. The captain applied the brakes and initially attempted to steer the aircraft onto the runway using the rudder. However, due to the infield's grass surface, braking and steering responses were minimal. Although the tiller was available for nose-wheel steering, it is not normally used until the speed is below 80 knots.
The aircraft traversed the grass infield to the intersection of taxiways Charlie and Bravo, continued onto taxiway Bravo, and struck a runway/taxiway identification sign before crossing the intersection of taxiways Bravo and Alpha. The aircraft struck the sign with the right side of the nose section, the inboard leading edge and the right-wing slats. The sign was struck with sufficient force that it was torn away from its base and came to rest behind the aircraft on the apron. The aircraft came to a stop on the grass just beyond the intersection of taxiways Bravo and Bravo/Alpha.

Probable Cause:

1. The crew flew an unstabilized approach with excessive airspeed.
2. The lack of adherence to company standard operating procedures and crew resource management, as well as the non-completion of checklist items by the flight crew contributed to the occurrence.
3. The captain’s commitment to landing or lack of understanding of the degree of instability of the flight path likely influenced the decision not to follow the aural GPWS alerts and the missed approach call from the first officer.
4. The non-standard wording and the tone used by the first officer were insufficient to deter the captain from continuing the approach.
5. At touchdown, directional control was lost, and the aircraft veered off the runway with sufficient speed to prevent any attempts to regain control.

Accident investigation:

Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 4 months
Accident number: A11O0098
Download report: Final report

Landing after unstabilized approach
Runway excursion (veer-off)


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Side view of a Dassault Falcon 10 that overran the runway at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport

This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Toronto-Pearson International Airport, ON to Toronto-Buttonville Airport, ON as the crow flies is 29 km (18 miles).

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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