ASN Aircraft accident Bombardier DHC-8-402Q Dash 8 C-GLQO Sault Ste. Marie Airport, ON (YAM)
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Status:Accident investigation report completed and information captured
Date:Sunday 26 May 2013
Type:Silhouette image of generic DH8D model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Bombardier DHC-8-402Q Dash 8
Operator:Porter Airlines
Registration: C-GLQO
MSN: 4270
First flight: 2009-08-06 (3 years 10 months)
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PW150A
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 59
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 63
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Aircraft fate: Repaired
Location:Sault Ste. Marie Airport, ON (YAM) (   Canada)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Domestic Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Toronto City-Billy Bishop Airport, ON (YTZ/CYTZ), Canada
Destination airport:Sault Ste. Marie Airport, ON (YAM/CYAM), Canada
A Bombardier DHC-8-402Q Dash 8 aircraft, C-GLQO, sustained substantial damage in tailstrike accident on landing at Sault Ste. Marie Airport, ON (YAM), Canada. There were no reported injuries.
Porter Airlines flight 689 was on a visual short final approach to Sault Ste. Marie's Airport runway 30 when power was reduced to correct the descent profile. The aircraft's descent rate quickly increased and was not arrested with power application. The airspeed decreased, causing the approach to become unstabilized.
The aircraft landed hard and during the landing flair the pitch angle increased such that the tail of the aircraft contacted the runway surface. There was significant damage to the aircraft skin and structure where it contacted the ground. The aircraft taxied to the gate without further incident.

Probable Cause:

Findings as to causes and contributing factors:
1. Neither crew member identified that the airspeed had dropped below landing reference speed; the flight no longer met the requirements of a stabilized approach, and an overshoot was required.
2. The pilot monitoring did not identify the decreasing airspeed and increasing descent rate in time to notify the pilot flying or intervene.
3. In response to the pilot monitoring's warning to add power, the pilot flying pitched the nose up beyond the limits stated in the standard operating procedures and the manufacturer's pitch awareness training.
4. The high rate of descent coupled with the high nose-up attitude of the aircraft resulted in the hard landing that compressed the struts and allowed the tail to strike the runway.

Findings as to risk
1. If standard operating procedures do not clearly define the requirements for a stabilized visual approach, there is an increased risk that continued flight could result in a landing accident.
2. If standard operating procedures do not clearly define the duties of the pilot monitoring, there is an increased risk that unsafe flight conditions could develop.

Accident investigation:

Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 9 months
Accident number: A13O0098
Download report: Final report

Runway mishap

» CADORS 2013O1292


photo of Bombardier-DHC-8-402Q-Dash-8-C-GLQO
FDR readout: Vertical profile from 4.75 nautical miles
photo of Bombardier-DHC-8-402Q-Dash-8-C-GLQO
FDR readout: Vertical profile from 1.5 nautical miles

This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Toronto City-Billy Bishop Airport, ON to Sault Ste. Marie Airport, ON as the crow flies is 508 km (318 miles).
Accident location: Exact; deduced from official accident report.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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