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Last updated: 23 May 2019
Status:Final
Date:Friday 18 March 2016
Time:08:20
Type:Silhouette image of generic B190 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Beechcraft 1900D
Operator:Aircraft Sales & Services Limited (ASSL)
Registration: AP-BII
C/n / msn: UE-45
First flight: 1993
Total airframe hrs:19574
Cycles:30623
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67D
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 3
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 18
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 21
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Location:Karachi-Jinnah International Airport (KHI) (   Pakistan)
Phase: Takeoff (TOF)
Nature:Domestic Non Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Karachi-Jinnah International Airport (KHI/OPKC), Pakistan
Destination airport:Sui Airport (SUL/OPSU), Pakistan
Narrative:
A Beechcraft 1900D, AP-BII, landed gear up following an engine issue on takeoff from Karachi-Jinnah International Airport, Pakistan.
The mishap flight was a chartered flight to transport personnel of Pakistan Petroleum Limited from Karachi to Sui. The takeoff weight was within limits. The calculated V1 and V2 speeds were 104 Kts and 106 Kts respectively, whereas the stalling speed was 84 Kts. The captain was Pilot Flying (PF) and the first officer was Pilot Monitoring (PM) for this sector. However, the first officer was a qualified captain on Beechcraft 1900D aircraft.
The aircraft taxied out at 08:05 hours local time. The aircraft start up and taxiing was normal.
The flight was given runway 25L for takeoff and the aircraft lined up on the runway. After obtaining takeoff clearance, the flight crew completed pre take off checks with no abnormalities observed.
At 08:23:06, take off thrust was applied very gradually and the aircraft started to roll. Five seconds after reaching maximum power, at 08:23:35 the PM announced the speed being 80 kts. FDR data indicated an increasing trend in torque and drop in propeller rpm of engine no. 2, which was not monitored by the flight crew. The propeller rpm dropped to a minimum 709 rpm in the next 11 seconds. Also, torque of engine no.1 began to drop, without any significant change in rpm. The aircraft was still rolling for takeoff and accellerating through 95 kts. When the no. 2 engine propeller rpm started to drop, the PF announced that the aircraft began drifting towards the right. The PM replied "continue...continue".
At 08:23:44 when the aircraft was reaching 96 kts, the PM asked PF to turn left and apply left rudder.
The flight crew did not realize at this stage that there was a problem with both engines and they were still below V1 which, as per pre flight calculation, was 104 kts.
At 08:23:49 the first officer asked the captain to increase the power of the left engine. By this time the drop in no. 1 engine torque had been arrested. It appears that the first officer had a glance on torque indicator and asked the captain to increase power.
At 08:23:53 the captain glanced at the engine instruments and wanted to express his concern about loss of power. Before being able the first officer announced ‘V1...rotate’ at 08:23:55 and 101 kts of speed.
After getting airborne, the aircraft continued to drift towards the right. In order to control the dropping speed and direction loss, the first officer took over the controls.
At 08:24:08 when decreasing speed had reached 98 kts the first officer asked the captain to raise the landing gears in order to reduce drag and gain speed. The aircraft had climbed to approximately 39 feet above ground and the captain asked the first officer to lower the nose in order to gain speed. At 08:24:19 when the aircraft was at 101 kts and approximately 41 feet above ground level, the first officer asked the captain to raise the flaps. While the aircraft was losing altitude, the maximum speed of 105 kts was recorded and aircraft was passing through 10 feet above ground level. Also, at this time the first officer asked the captain to reduce left engine power. The first officer judged that there was no option other than to make the aircraft land on the remaining runway. The aircraft hit the runway surface with landing gear retracted, approximately 9000 ft from the beginning of runway 25L. The aircraft continued to drag on the runway while continuously drifting right for 800 ft before departing towards right side on the fair weather strip.
After travelling approximately 600 ft on the fair weather strip, the aircraft veered towards the left and came to a final stop on the runway 1050 ft short from end of runway.
As the captain was seriously injured, the first officer brought fuel control levers, propeller levers and power levers back; put the battery and generators off after the aircraft came to halt. An immediate evacuation of the passengers was carried out.

Probable Cause:

Cause of Occurrence
The investigation therefore, concludes that:
1. Some internal malfunction of the Propeller Governor Part No. 8210-410 Serial No. 2490719 was the cause of experienced uncommanded auto feather. However, exact cause of the occurrence could not be determined.
2. Continuing take off below V1 speed (104kts) after encountering engine malfunction and after takeoff raising flaps below recommended height (400ft AGL) lead to decrease in lift and unsustainability of flight.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: CAA Pakistan
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 7 months
Accident number: Final report
Download report: Final report

Classification:
Wheel(s) up landing
Forced landing on runway

Follow-up / safety actions

issued 5 Safety Recommendations

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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Karachi-Jinnah International Airport to Sui Airport as the crow flies is 459 km (287 miles).
Accident location: Exact; as reported in the official accident report.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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