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Last updated: 23 January 2020
Status:Final
Date:Friday 6 July 2018
Time:16:20
Type:Silhouette image of generic AT76 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
ATR 72-212A (ATR 72-600)
Operated by:White Airways
On behalf of:TAP Express
Registration: CS-DJG
C/n / msn: 1316
First flight: 2016-04-04 (2 years 3 months)
Total airframe hrs:5645
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127M
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 58
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 62
Aircraft damage: Substantial
Aircraft fate: Repaired
Location:Fez-Sais Airport (FEZ) (   Morocco)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:International Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Lisboa-Portela de Sacavém Airport (LIS/LPPT), Portugal
Destination airport:Fez-Sais Airport (FEZ/GMFF), Morocco
Flightnumber:TP1428
Narrative:
A White Airways ATR 72-600, operating flight 1428 on behalf of TAP, experienced a hard landing at Fez-Sais Airport, Morocco.
The co-pilot was the pilot flying (PF); this was her first airline aircraft type and she was on training.
The crew conducted an approach to Fez runway 27 with a computed Vapp of 109 KIAS and the aircraft weight was 21.0 t.
The weather reported by Fez ATIS information R for that period on approach and landing was: surface wind 350° at 8 kt, visibility 10 km or more, air temperature 33°C and QNH 1019mbar.
The captain, as pilot monitoring (PM), reported that during the final flare, the aircraft was "literally thrown to the deck" and on the final moments, he grabbed the yoke, trying to reduce the rate of descent, but did not have sufficient time.
This resulted in a firm landing, during which the tail bumper contacted the ground and the belly scraped the runway.
The aircraft flight data and management system recorded a vertical acceleration at touchdown of +2,88G. The damage sustained was an abrasion of the tail bump and part of lower fuselage skin between frames FR35 and FR39.
The aircraft rolled out without further incident and taxied to the apron.
An external inspection and a walk around were performed by the captain, focused on the landing gear without any findings.
According to the operator data, the aircraft continued in-service, departing for the next scheduled flight, TP1427 from Fez, about one hour after landing, with 55 passengers on board to Lisbon.

Probable Cause:

Probable causes:
The investigation determined the accident most probable cause the flight crew performance on the landing maneuver, namely, with poor aircraft energy management while performing an unstable approach.

Contributing factors:
For the crew performance during the landing in Fez, the following direct contributing factors were identified:
- non-compliance by the PIC/LTC with the discontinued approach procedure,
- the PIC/LTC not performing the appropriate flight supervision techniques and the proper aircraft recovery from an unsafe condition on the unstable approach,
- the training process (LIFUS) with the consequent authorization for the trainee co-pilot to fly as PF, without a safety pilot on board, taking into account her known difficulties controlling the aircraft at landing,
- the missing explicit definition of the stabilized approach criteria by the operator.

For the crew decision process to start the return flight to Lisbon, the following contributing factors were identified:
- Organizational culture with inadequate or nonexistent procedures and individual-centered decision-making without effective implementation of the CRM philosophy,
- Lack of operator’s oversight by NAA to comply with certification regulations, not adopting SARPs in compliance checks.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: GPIAAF Portugal
Status: Investigation ongoing
Duration: 1 year and 6 months
Accident number: 06/ACCID/2018
Download report:

Classification:
Heavy landing
Tailstrike
Runway mishap

METAR Weather report:
15:00 UTC / 16:00 local time:
GMFF 061500Z 32008KT 270V010 CAVOK 34/15 Q1019 NOSIG

16:00 UTC / 17:00 local time:
GMFF 061600Z 30010KT 270V340 CAVOK 34/14 Q1018 NOSIG


Photos

photo of ATR-72-212A-CS-DJG
accident date: 06-07-2018
type: ATR 72-212A (ATR 72-600)
registration: CS-DJG
photo of ATR-72-212A-CS-DJG
 

Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Lisboa-Portela de Sacavém Airport to Fez-Sais Airport as the crow flies is 651 km (407 miles).
Accident location: Approximate; accuracy within a few kilometers.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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