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Last updated: 20 September 2019
Status:Final
Date:Tuesday 31 July 2018
Time:15:22
Type:Silhouette image of generic E190 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Embraer ERJ-190AR
Operator:Aeroméxico Connect
Registration: XA-GAL
C/n / msn: 19000173
First flight: 2008
Total airframe hrs:27257
Cycles:18200
Engines: 2 General Electric CF34-10E6
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 5
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 98
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 103
Aircraft damage: Destroyed
Aircraft fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:Durango-Guadalupe Victoria Airport (DGO) (   Mexico)
Phase: Takeoff (TOF)
Nature:Domestic Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Durango-Guadalupe Victoria Airport (DGO/MMDO), Mexico
Destination airport:Mexico City-Benito Juárez International Airport (MEX/MMMX), Mexico
Flightnumber:AM2431
Narrative:
Aeroméxico Flight 2431 operated by an Aeroméxico Connect Embraer ERJ-190 impacted airport terrain shortly after commencing takeoff from runway 03 at Guadalupe Victoria International Airport (MMDO), Durango, and a post-impact fire ensued. All 103 occupants survived but 14 suffered serious injuries.
The aircraft arrived at Durango from Mexico City as flight 2430 at 14:11 hours local time, 23 minutes ahead of schedule. As the ERJ-190 was prepared for the return flight there was a broken layer of cumulonimbus clouds at 2500 feet. Airport weather information shows that a thunderstorm had developed by 15:18 hours local time and the temperature had dropped from 28°C to 20°C over the previous hour.
In the flight crew on board flight AM2431 consisted of a captain, co-pilot and an observer. The observer was a licensed commercial pilot with type rating for Beech King Air planes. He was in the process of obtaining a type rating for Embraer jets and had accumulated 64 hours of simulator time.
The captain allowed the obverver to take the right hand seat and the co-pilot occupied the jump seat. He also allowed the observer to act as Pilot Flying.
The aircraft commenced the takeoff roll on runway 03 at 15:22 hours local time (planned departure time was 15:09 hours).
During the takeoff roll there were notable variations in airspeed and wind direction. At 15:22:42 hours, the aircraft was accelerating through an airspeed of 146 knots. Wind at that time was 47 degrees (from the right-hand side) at 33 knots. Eight seconds later the aircraft had rotated and was climbing through 8 feet radio altitude at an airspeed of 145 knots. By that time the wind had shifted to a crosswind: 103 degrees at 11 knots. The aircraft reached a highest altitude of about 30 feet. At 15:22:56 hours, the aircraft had descended to 19 feet and was caught in a 22-knot tailwind of 30 degrees.
The aircraft then hit the ground to the left of the runway, left wing first. Both engines broke away during the subsequent ground slide. The aircraft came to rest about 380 meters past the runway threshold and 320 meters past the paved end of the runway, slightly to the left of the extended centreline. The length of runway 03 is 2900 m (9514 ft).

Probable Cause:

Probable cause: "Impact against the runway caused by loss of control of the aircraft in the final phase of the take-off run by low altitude windshear that caused a loss of speed and lift".

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS:
Crew:
(a) Decrease in situational awareness of the SLI2431 flight crew when the commander was performing unauthorized instructional tasks without being qualified to provide flight instruction and to assign co-pilot and Pilot Flying duties to a an uncertified and unlicensed pilot.
(b) Failure to detect variations in the indicator displayed by the airspeed indicator on the PFD during the take-off run.
(c) Lack of adherence to sterile cabin procedures and operational procedures (TVC; Changes of runway and/or take off conditions after door closings; Take off in adverse windshear conditions) established in the Flight Operations Manual, the Dispatch Manual and the Standard Operating Procedures of Aerolitoral, S. A. de C. V.

Navigation Services in the Mexican Air Space:
a) Lack of adherence to procedure 7.18 "Cizalleo a baja altura" published in the Manual de Gestión de Tránsito Aéreo de México, Ed.2018.
b) Lack of adherence to the stipulated in point 7.4.1.2 Aerodrome and meteorological information, subsection 7.4.1.2.1 and 7.4.1.2.2 of the Manual de Gestión de Transito Aéreo de México, Ed. 2018, to provide information on important variations in wind direction and speed, value of visibility existing at the time of takeoff and significant meteorological conditions.
c) Lack of supervisory personnel in TWR DGO.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: CIDAIA Mexico
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 208 days (7 months)
Accident number: ACCDTAFA034/2018MMDO
Download report: Final report

Classification:
Windshear/downdraft
Loss of control

Sources:
» Aéromexico statement
» 24-horas.mx

METAR Weather report:
18:44 UTC / 13:44 local time:
MMDO 311844Z 12003KT 12SM BKN025TCU BKN200 26/11 A3026 RMK 8/201 ISOL CB

19:41 UTC / 14:41 local time:
MMDO 311941Z 01005KT 10SM BKN025CB 28/10 A3023 RMK 8/300

20:18 UTC / 15:18 local time:
MMDO 312018Z 07003KT 7SM TSRA BKN020CB 20/13 A3023 RMK 8/900 TSRAB13

21:03 UTC / 16:03 local time:
MMDO 312103Z RTD 28007KT 7SM OVC015CB 17/14 A3024 RMK SLP118 57014 956 8/9 // PISTA CERRADA POR ACFT ACCIDENTADA


Photos

photo of Embraer-ERJ-190AR-	XA-GAL
photo of Embraer-ERJ-190AR-XA-GAL
FDR parameters of takeoff
photo of Embraer-ERJ-190AR-XA-GAL
photo of Embraer-ERJ-190AR-	XA-GAL
accident date: 31-07-2018
type: Embraer ERJ-190AR
registration: XA-GAL
photo of Embraer-ERJ-190AR-	XA-GAL
accident date: 31-07-2018
type: Embraer ERJ-190AR
registration: XA-GAL
 

Video, social media

Aircraft history
date registration operator remarks
2008 PT-SDI Embraer first flight
21 May 2008 N960UW US Airways
Nov. 2009 N960UW Republic Airlines op. for Midwest Airlines
Dec. 2009 N167HQ Republic Airlines new registration
27 June 2014 XA-GAL Aeroméxico Connect

Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Durango-Guadalupe Victoria Airport to Mexico City-Benito Juárez International Airport as the crow flies is 763 km (477 miles).
Accident location: Exact; deduced from official accident report.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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