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ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 225859
Last updated: 18 September 2021
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Date:27-OCT-2017
Time:15:35 UTC
Type:Silhouette image of generic E190 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Embraer ERJ-195LR (ERJ-190-200 LR)
Owner/operator:Austrian Airlines
Registration: OE-LWJ
MSN: 19000507
Fatalities:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 102
Other fatalities:0
Aircraft damage: None
Category:Serious incident
Location:near Salzburg-W. A. Mozart Airport (SZG/LOWS) -   Austria
Phase: Approach
Nature:Passenger - Scheduled
Departure airport:Frankfurt International Airport (FRA/EDDF)
Destination airport:Salzburg-W. A. Mozart Airport (SZG/LOWS)
Investigating agency: UUS Austria
Narrative:
Austrian Airlines flight OS266, an Embraer ERJ-195LR, departed Frankfurt International Airport, Germany, on a regular service to Salzburg, Austria when it suffered a serious incident during a go around at Salzburg.
Before departure from Frankfurt, due to the weather conditions, both pilots discussed the windshear procedures. The captain served as Pilot Flying (PF) on this flight, and the copilot was Pilot Monitoring (PM).
During the flight, the cockpit crew had noticed thunderstorm cells in the vicinity of Salzburg. Due to a tailwind component that was possibly too high for landing on runway 15, the cockpit crew also discussed a circling approach to runway 33, which, however, was not necessary.
During the ILS approach to runway 15, heavy rain showers passed through, causing a high noise level in the cockpit. The pilots were not informed of any advance warning regarding windshear during the approach, neither via ATIS nor via ATC. The intensity of the showers was very high, so the windshield wiper was set to MAX.
On approach, the SPEED selector switch was set to MANUAL. The reference speed Vref was determined to be 125 kts. Due to the wind it was increased by 5 kts to 130 kts.
The aircraft was controlled on approach using the HGS (Head-up Guidance System) and was stabilised. At approximately 2,400 ft MSL (approximately 1,000 ft above ground level), the aircraft suddenly experienced a tailwind component of 24 kt. At approximately 15:35 UTC, the autopilot was switched off.
One second later, at an altitude of approximately 2,130 ft MSL and approximately 2.3 NM from runway 15, a windshear caution lasting 8 seconds was initiated by the onboard system due to the tailwind component rapidly decreasing to 4 kt.
The windshear caution came as a surprise to both pilots. Based on the windshear caution displayed in the cockpit, the PM called "Windshear", which the PF confirmed. Four seconds after the windshear, the lowest altitude on approach was reached at approximately 2,060 ft MSL (approximately 650 ft agl).
The PF made the decision to go around and initiated a missed approach procedure.
On take-off, the PF pushed both power levers forward to a thrust lever angle (TLA) of 74.9°/75.3° (left/right), then took his right hand off the power levers, pulled the control column with both hands and initiated the climb. The runway 15 of Salzburg Airport (LOWS) was diagonally to the right in front of the aircraft at this time.
Both pilots assumed at this point that the power levers were pushed far enough forward and that the TOGA mode was pressed.
However, as neither was the case, the Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) was not activated. The Autothrottle System therefore remained engaged in Speed Mode and retracted the two power levers pushed forward to maintain the set Vref speed of 130 KIAS.
As the pitch angle was increased to 14 degrees and the power was taken back by the autothrottle system, a loss of speed to as low as 113 KIAS occurred. This configuration and the aircraft attitude combined with the increased G-load triggered the stall warning (stickshaker) for two seconds, 15 seconds after the windshear caution.
The flaps were retracted to position 4, 42 seconds after the windshear caution at an altitude of approximately 1,110 ft above the airfield.
A further 10 seconds later, at an altitude of approximately 2,590 ft MSL, the landing gear was retracted.
It was not until 73 seconds after the windshear caution that TOGA was pressed. The TOGA mode caused an engine power increase to the ATCCS value of 87.9% N1. 103 seconds after the windshear caution, with a DME indication of approx. 2.1 NM, the LNAV navigation mode was activated.
A further six seconds later, at an altitude of approx. 4,100 ft MSL, the left turn of the missed approach procedure was initiated. Subsequently, the PF steered the aircraft to 10,000 ft MSL and flew two holding patterns over the VOR Salzburg.
The second approach and landing on runway 15 of Salzburg Airport (LOWS) took place at approximately 16:01 UTC without further incident.

Probable causes
- Procedural deviations by cockpit crew due to "surprise and startle effect."
- Delayed reaction and activation of TOGA-mode

Probable factors
Crew:
- Impairment due to "surprise and startle effect".
- Delayed actuation of the G/A button.
- Procedural deviations
Weather:
- Wind shear
- changing tailwind components
- Thunderstorm activity in the vicinity of the destination airport

Sources:

BMVIT

Similar incident of startle effect during windshear prediction and subsequent mishandled go around:
4 Feb. 2020 A350 French Bee at Paris-Orly

Accident investigation:
cover
  
Investigating agency: UUS Austria
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 3 years and 9 months
Download report: Final report
Other occurrences involving this aircraft

28 Mar 2014 D-AEBL Lufthansa CityLine 0 near Birmingham (BHX/EGBB) min


Images:

Photo of OE-LWJ courtesy AirHistory.net


Düsseldorf - International (EDDL / DUS)
12 August 2018; (c) Joop de Groot


Figure: SUB

Revision history:

Date/timeContributorUpdates
05-Jun-2019 18:39 harro Added
08-Aug-2021 12:48 harro Updated [Registration, Cn, Nature, Departure airport, Source, Narrative, Accident report]
08-Aug-2021 14:05 harro Updated [Narrative]
08-Aug-2021 14:19 harro Updated [Location, Photo]
08-Aug-2021 16:13 harro Updated [Source]

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