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ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 178886
Last updated: 13 June 2019
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Date:22-AUG-2015
Time:13:22
Type:Silhouette image of generic HUNT model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Hawker Hunter T Mk 7
Owner/operator:Canfield Hunter Ltd.
Registration: G-BXFI
C/n / msn: 41H-670815
Fatalities:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 1
Other fatalities:11
Aircraft damage: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:A27, north of Shoreham Airport, West Sussex -   United Kingdom
Phase: Manoeuvring (airshow, firefighting, ag.ops.)
Nature:Demo/Airshow/Display
Departure airport:North Weald Airfield (EGSX)
Destination airport:North Weald Airfield (EGSX)
Narrative:
A Hawker Hunter jet impacted the A27 road during a loop in a display flight at the Shoreham Airshow. Four cars, two motorcycles and three pedal cycles were hit by the aircraft.
The pilot was pulled from the wreckage and has survived the accident with serious injuries. A total of eleven persons on the ground were killed.

The aircraft had departed North Weald Airfield and continued towards Shoreham for a display flight.
The aircraft, having rolled upright and wings level, continued to descend and a right turn made to line up with the display line to the west of Runway 02/20 at Shoreham. The aircraft remained in a gentle right turn with the angle of bank decreasing as it descended to 100 ft amsl and flew along the display line. It commenced a gentle climbing right turn to 1,600 ft amsl, executing a Derry turn to the left and then commenced a descending left turn to 200 ft amsl, approaching the display line at an angle of about 45. The aircraft then pitched up into a manoeuvre with both a vertical component and roll to the left, becoming almost fully inverted at the apex of the manoeuvre at a height of approximately 2,600 ft amsl. During the descent the aircraft accelerated and the nose was raised but the aircraft did not achieve level flight before it struck the westbound carriageway of the A27 at its junction with Old Shoreham Road.

Following the accident, all U.K-registered Hawker Hunter jets were grounded by the CAA until further notice. Also, vintage jet displays over land were limited to fly-by's and low energy turns.

The investigation identified the following causal factors in the accident:

- The aircraft did not achieve sufficient height at the apex of the accident manoeuvre to complete it before impacting the ground because the combination of low entry speed and low engine thrust in the upward half of the manoeuvre was insufficient.
- An escape manoeuvre was not carried out, despite the aircraft not achieving the required minimum apex height.

The following contributory factors were identified:
- The pilot either did not perceive that an escape manoeuvre was necessary, or did not realise that one was possible at the speed achieved at the apex of the manoeuvre.
- The pilot had not received formal training to escape from the accident manoeuvre in a Hunter and had not had his competence to do so assessed.
- The pilot had not practised the technique for escaping from the accident manoeuvre in a Hunter, and did not know the minimum speed from which an escape manoeuvre could be carried out successfully.
- A change of ground track during the manoeuvre positioned the aircraft further east than planned producing an exit track along the A27 dual carriageway.
- The manoeuvre took place above an area occupied by the public over which the organisers of the flying display had no control.
- The severity of the outcome was due to the absence of provisions to mitigate the effects of an aircraft crashing in an area outside the control of the organisers of the flying display.

- 2018 march : Andy Hill, from Sandon, Hertfordshire, will be charged with manslaughter, according to the CPS and will also be formally charged with endangering the safety of an aircraft.
- 2018, april : Andy Hill will plead not guilty to manslaughter.

Sources:

https://www.gov.uk/aaib-reports/aircraft-accident-report-aar-1-2017-g-bxfi-22-august-2015
________________________________________
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-34027260
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/22/hawker-hunter-plane-crash-shoreham-air-show-reports
http://www.fradu-hunters.co.uk/fraduhnt/877wv372.html
http://www.caa.co.uk/aircraft-registration/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-34034430
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/aaib-special-bulletin-on-hawker-hunter-t7-g-bxfi
https://www.caa.co.uk/Safety-initiatives-and-resources/Safety-projects/Airshow-review/CAA-review-of-public-air-display-arrangements-in-the-UK/
http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/modalapplication.aspx?appid=11&mode=detail&id=6955 (CAP1351 progress report)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-sussex-35136046
https://www.gov.uk/aaib-reports/aaib-investigation-to-hawker-hunter-t7-g-bxfi-special-bulletin-s4-2015
2018 march: https://news.sky.com/story/shoreham-airshow-disaster-pilot-andy-hill-to-be-charged-with-manslaughter-11299230
2018 april: https://www.spiritfm.net/news/sussex-news/2557828/shoreham-air-crash-pilot-pleads-not-guilty-to-manslaughter/
_________________________________________________
http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/modalapplication.aspx?appid=11&mode=detail&id=7318 (CAP1400)
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/shoreham-high-court-judgement (press release 28 Sept 2016)
http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/FACTOR%20Master%20Colour%20Template%20-%20BXFI%20Recs%20Update20180213.pdf

Safety recommendations:

Safety recommendation 2015-041 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2015-042 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2015-043 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2015-044 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2015-045 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2015-046 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2015-047 issued 22 December 2015 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-031 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-032 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-033 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-034 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-035 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-036 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-037 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-038 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-039 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-040 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-041 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-042 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-043 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2016-044 issued 10 March 2016 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-001 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-002 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-003 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-004 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-005 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-006 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-007 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-008 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-009 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-010 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to CAA
Safety recommendation 2017-011 issued 3 March 2017 by AAIB to DoT UK

Hawker Hunter T.7, Private JP7180533.jpg
"Hawker Hunter T.7, Private JP7180533" by Aldo Bidini - Gallery page http://jetphotos.net/viewphoto.php?id=7180533 Photo http://images3.jetphotos.net/img/4/3/1/8/85085_1312747813.jpg. Licensed under GFDL 1.2 via Wikimedia Commons.


Images:



Revision history:

Date/timeContributorUpdates
22-Aug-2015 12:27 harro Added
22-Aug-2015 12:38 harro Updated [Time, Aircraft type, Registration, Location, Embed code, Narrative]
22-Aug-2015 12:51 Aerossurance Updated [Source, Damage, Narrative]
22-Aug-2015 13:47 Aerossurance Updated [Source]
22-Aug-2015 13:53 harro Updated [Registration, Departure airport, Destination airport, Narrative]
22-Aug-2015 13:57 Aerossurance Updated [Cn, Operator, Source, Narrative]
22-Aug-2015 14:06 Aerossurance Updated [Source, Narrative]
22-Aug-2015 14:19 harro Updated [Embed code]
22-Aug-2015 15:02 harro Updated [Aircraft type, Operator, Embed code]
22-Aug-2015 15:54 Aerossurance Updated [Time, Registration, Total fatalities, Other fatalities, Location, Narrative]
22-Aug-2015 16:04 harro Updated [Total fatalities, Other fatalities, Narrative]
23-Aug-2015 07:16 Chieftain Updated [Nature]
23-Aug-2015 16:14 niceboy66 Updated [Other fatalities]
23-Aug-2015 16:14 Michael Roots Updated [Other fatalities, Source]
23-Aug-2015 16:14 harro Updated [Source]
26-Aug-2015 17:48 Aircraft19 Updated [Narrative]
26-Aug-2015 17:50 harro Updated [Narrative]
03-Sep-2015 13:26 Anon. Updated [Narrative]
04-Sep-2015 13:42 Aerossurance Updated [Source, Narrative]
04-Sep-2015 13:46 Aerossurance Updated [Time, Narrative]
04-Sep-2015 17:34 harro Updated [Departure airport, Destination airport, Source]
06-Sep-2015 06:47 Iceman 29 Updated [Photo, ]
06-Sep-2015 06:47 Iceman 29 Updated [Photo, ]
21-Dec-2015 14:31 Aerossurance Updated [Location, Source, Narrative]
22-Dec-2015 10:05 Crabfat Updated [Source]
02-Jul-2016 09:06 Aerossurance Updated [Source, Narrative]
28-Sep-2016 10:07 Aerossurance Updated [Source, Narrative]
03-Mar-2017 17:38 harro Updated [Time, Source, Embed code, Narrative]
18-Feb-2018 09:36 Aerossurance Updated [Location, Source]
21-Mar-2018 20:20 Iceman 29 Updated [Source, Embed code, Narrative]
19-Apr-2018 19:53 Iceman 29 Updated [Source, Embed code, Narrative]

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