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ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 207378
Last updated: 24 September 2018
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Date:02-MAR-2018
Time:21:16 LT
Type:Silhouette image of generic C25A model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Cessna 525A CitationJet CJ2
Owner/operator:Taespejo Portugal
Registration: EC-KES
C/n / msn: 525A-0155
Fatalities:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 5
Other fatalities:0
Aircraft damage: Minor
Category:Serious incident
Location:Bern-Belp Airport (LSZB) -   Switzerland
Phase: Landing
Nature:Executive
Departure airport:Lille Airport (LFQQ)
Destination airport:Bern-Belp Airport (LSZB)
Investigating agency: STSB Switzerland
Narrative:
The CitationJet CJ2, registration EC-KES took off from Lille, France as flight TES 202 at 20:15 hours.
The First Officer was the Pilot Flying (PF), whilst the PIC was the Pilot Monitoring (PM). During the flight, the crew obtained information about the current weather in Bern. According to the Automatic Terminal Information System (ATIS) at 20:50, approx. 25 minutes before landing, visibility at ground level was 5,000 m with a variable wind of 2 kt and light cloud at 11,000 ft above airport elevation. In addition, shallow fog (MIFG) below 2 m and good braking action over the entire length of the damp runway were reported. The crew carried out an approach briefing, during which, as per their statements, they also addressed the runway lighting.
At 21:10, Bernís Aerodrome Control Officer (ADCO) informed the crew that patches of shallow fog had formed in the area between the start of runway 14 and Taxiway (TWY) A, and that the runway lighting had been set to maximum brightness.
At 21:13, the ADCO gave the crew of EC-KES clearance to land on runway 14 and said that there was no wind. The crew acknowledged this and added that they already had full view of runway 14. At this moment, the aircraft, which was flying at an altitude of 5,000 ft Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL), was already aligned to runway 14ís Localiser (LOC) and still around 10 NM away from runway 14ís threshold. Upon reaching the glideslope, approx. 7 NM before runway 14ís threshold, the Ground Speed (GS) was approx. 205 kt. Whilst descending further along the glideslope, the GS remained roughly constant up to 3.5 NM before the runway threshold. The GS then steadily reduced until it reached around 160 kt at a distance of 2 NM from the runway threshold. At this moment, EC-KES was at a flying altitude of approx. 2,700 ft AMSL or 1,000 ft above airport elevation. Subsequently, a further decrease in GS was recorded; at the last data point at 20:15:27 UTC at a distance of 1.6 NM from the runway threshold, the GS was still 138 kt. At the time of approach, according to data from the meteorological service, there was light wind with a maximum wind speed of 3 kt between 4,000 ft AMSL and ground level.
Shortly before reaching the decision altitude, the FO switched off the autopilot and flew EC-KES manually until landing. The aircraft touched down next to the left side of the runway in the snow. The PIC then took over control and steered the aircraft back to the right, to the middle of the runway.
The aircraft left the runway and taxied to the parking position without any further problems. After parking the aircraft on the apron and the passengers had disembarked, the crew noticed that the doors of both main landing gears and the left flap were damaged. In addition, all of the wheels and the underside of the fuselage as well as of the wings were covered in mud and the left engine exhibited mud on the in- and outlet.
Immediately after the incident, an inspection of the runway was carried out and the friction coefficient (FC) was measured along the runway. The FC along the entire runway was around 0.7, which results in good braking action. During the inspection, wheel tracks were found in the snow to the left of the runway, along with mud on the runway, as well as several runway edge lights and taxiway lights that had broken off.

Conclusions
During the investigation, it was not possible to determine as to why the aircraft had touched down next to the runway on the runway edge lights down the left-hand side. The following facts are however confirmed:
- The crew executed the instrument approach at a considerably excessive speed and only reduced the speed very late. At a distance of 2 NM before the runway threshold and at a flying altitude of 1,000 ft above ground, the IAS was still 43 kt above the recommended final approach speed. In doing so, the crew clearly deviated from the stabilised final approach principle.
- Following a normal flare, the aircraft touched down in the snow to the left of the runway and rolled for approx. 300 m along the left-hand edge of the runway, before making an abrupt turn to the right, back onto the runway.
- There was shallow fog in the landing zone.
- The surface of the runway was damp. The friction coefficient (FC) along the entire runway was such that good braking action could be achieved.

Sources:

https://www.sust.admin.ch/inhalte/AV-berichte/EC-KES.pdf

Accident investigation:
cover
  
Investigating agency: STSB Switzerland
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 6 months
Download report: Final report


Revision history:

Date/timeContributorUpdates
11-Mar-2018 20:51 harro Added
14-Sep-2018 07:37 harro Updated [Nature, Narrative, Accident report, ]

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